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Refractive Index Of Water And Oil Project Pdf

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Two optofluidic devices for the refractive index measurement of small volume of fluids

Time Required: 3 hours 15 minutes can be split into four minute sessions. Although no charge or fee is required for using TeachEngineering curricular materials in your classroom, the lessons and activities often require material supplies. The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity. This activity also requires some non-expendable lab supplies and equipment that are all reusable if properly stored after the activity; see the Materials List for details. Figure 1. Look carefully: Is one of the glass stirring rods invisible? Refractive index is a fundamental optical property of materials, and knowing the accurate value of a material's refractive index enables us to predict the angle that light is bent as it passes through the material, which is important in many real-world applications.

Now that we know that the degree of bending, or the angle of refraction, is dependent on the refractive index of a medium, how do we calculate the angle of refraction? The answer to this question was discovered by a Dutch physicist called Willebrord Snell in and is now called Snell's Law or the Law of Refraction. Remember that angles of incidence and refraction are measured from the normal, which is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface. Snell never published his discovery of the Law of Refraction. His work was actually published by another prominent physicist of the time, Christiaan Huygens, who gave credit to Snell. A recommended project for formal assessment on verifying Snell's laws and determining the refractive index of an unknown transparent solid should be done. Learners will need a glass block, ray box, protractor, a glass block, a transparent block of an unknown material and A4 paper.

Many materials have a well-characterized refractive index , but these indexes often depend strongly upon the frequency of light, causing optical dispersion. Standard refractive index measurements are taken at the "yellow doublet" sodium D line , with a wavelength of nanometers. Thus, it is especially important to cite the source for an index measurement if precision is required. Such losses become particularly significant, for example, in metals at short e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Optics, Fourth Edit.

refractive indexes of water and oil

When electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, travels from one substance or medium into another, the light waves may undergo a phenomenon known as refraction , which is manifested by a bending or change in direction of the light. Refraction occurs as light passes from one medium to another only when there is a difference in the index of refraction between the two materials. The effects of refraction are responsible for a variety of familiar phenomena, such as the apparent bending of an object that is partially submerged in water and the mirages observed on a hot, sandy desert. The refraction of visible light is also an important characteristic of lenses that enables them to focus a beam of light onto a single point. Early nineteenth century lacemakers relied on water-filled glass spheres to focus or condense candlelight onto small areas of their work in order to help them see fine details more clearly. Figure 1 illustrates a lacemaker's condenser made in the s, which consists of several glass spheres arranged in a circle around a candle stand, enabling light from the candle to be focused or concentrated into several bright spots. The curved surface of the glass sphere functions as a large collecting surface for the light rays, which are then refracted toward a common focal point in a manner similar to that of a convex lens.

To find the refractive indexes of a water b oil using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens, and an adjustable object needle. Find the rough focal length of the convex lens. Place a plane mirror on the horizontal base of the iron stand and then a convex lens on the plane mirror. Hold the needle in the clamp stand and adjust its position on the stand such that there is no parallax between tip of the needle and its image. Measure distance between tip and upper surface of the lens by using a plumb line and half meter scale.

Two simple optofluidic devices based on a microprism and a refraction channel, respectively, are proposed for measuring the refractive index of fluids. In both chips, the refractive index of the test fluid is calculated from a CCD image of the refracted ray in accordance with simple geometrical optics principles. The experimental results show that the refraction channel chip provides a more accurate measurement performance than the microprism chip; particularly for colloidal samples. However, the refraction channel chip is suitable only for the measurement of fluids with a refractive index greater than that of the chip substrate. Overall, the results presented in this study show that both devices provide a simple, low cost and effective means of determining the refractive index of a wide range of common test fluids with nano-liter volume. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

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To find the refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror

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ГЛАВА 121 - Семь минут! - оповестил техник. - Восемь рядов по восемь! - возбужденно воскликнула Сьюзан.

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Наверное, жена сказала ему не возвращаться домой. Я слышал, она его уже достала. Мидж задумалась. До нее тоже доходили подобные слухи. Так, может быть, она зря поднимает панику. - Мидж.

Сьюзан рассеянно кивнула, но тут же вспомнила, как Танкадо отдал им Северную Дакоту. Она вглядывалась в группы из четырех знаков, допуская, что Танкадо играет с ними в кошки-мышки. - Туннельный блок наполовину уничтожен! - крикнул техник.

List of refractive indices

Он решил, что мы добрались до него и, вероятно, отравили - ядом, вызывающим остановку сердца. Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту. По спине Сьюзан пробежал холодок. - Конечно, - чуть слышно сказала.  - Танкадо подумал, что раз мы приостановили действие его страхового полиса, то можем приостановить и его .

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