File Name: rural oklahoma students and access to higher education .zip
With advances in technology, students across the world have access to a range of educational opportunities unthinkable even a decade ago.
A high school student in Ruleville, Mississippi, adjusts his cap in preparation for his graduation ceremony, May In the heart of the Arkansas Delta lies Lee County, a rural area with a deep history. Cotton, an industry sustained by slaves and, later, African American sharecroppers, once ruled Lee County.
A student living in the county seat, Marianna, for example, would have to drive 18 miles to get to the nearest community college campus—more than twice as far as the average community college student typically commutes.
The closest four-year, public, in-state option would require a four-hour round trip. Two hours west, Pulaski County, the home of Little Rock, offers a stark contrast.
There, the population has more than tripled in the same time frame. It may seem like Pulaski County has all the successes that Lee County does not, but the story is not so simple.
These contrasting narratives—of low overall attainment in rural areas and highly stratified rates in urban ones—play out on a national scale. The United States has boosted attainment rates over the past decade, with the share of young adults with at least an associate degree increasing by 20 percent, resulting in an additional 5 million more individuals earning a college degree. But these gains in postsecondary attainment are not evenly distributed across the country. Of the This report lays out the current state of postsecondary attainment in the United States, exploring the overall landscape and delving into how attainment varies according to geography and race.
Then, the report concludes by providing recommendations at the federal, state, and local levels. This is particularly true for people of color, even though the returns to their education are not as strong as they are for white individuals.
Until the United States can create multiple high-quality paths to the middle class for all Americans, a college education will continue to be the difference-maker for millions of people.
The payoff for future investments must be felt broadly and, in particular, should lift up those who have been pushed to the margins for too long. This report uses American Community Survey data aggregated from to to illustrate how each of the roughly 3, counties in the United States and Puerto Rico stack up in terms of degree attainment for adults. Though these credentials are a popular means to building career-relevant skills, only about 5 percent of adults have earned a workforce-relevant certificate.
Finally, the map includes the locations of nearly 13, college campuses. Prior research on postsecondary education locations has relied on incomplete data, 21 but those presented here are culled from the U. While identifying college locations is not an exact science, the map is intended to make the reader rethink what constitutes a college campus; some locations are housed in office buildings, while others might be located on military bases—and still more may be embedded on the campuses of other colleges.
As readers peruse this report, they can follow along on the interactive map, which allows users to explore various regions. When they are finished reading, they can explore further using the key, search bar, and zoom tools. What does it mean to have a college degree in America? Some may take it as a given, as their families have attended—and finished—college for generations. Others may see it as an option alongside other viable paths, such as taking over a family business, learning a trade, or making a home for their spouse and children.
However, more may think of college as out of reach, perhaps because they do not know anyone with a degree or because their circumstances make enrollment seem untenable. On the whole, attending college leads to better long-term outcomes. Though greater numbers of Americans have a college degree than ever before, more than 60 percent of adults—roughly million in all—have not earned one. This second group includes certificate-earners, though it is difficult to know what share of these individuals fall into this category.
Those without a high school diploma are the smallest group of adults without a degree. About These figures highlight that attainment is quite stratified, and attainment at the highest levels is limited.
For example, adults without a high school diploma outnumber those with a graduate degree by about 2. To put these figures into perspective, the number of adults with a graduate degree is about the same as the population of Texas, whereas the number of adults with no college degree is roughly equivalent to the combined populations of Texas, California, Florida, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, and South Carolina.
Also notable is the number of adults who have enrolled in college but either dropped out or earned a certificate instead. The interactive map shows that degrees are held largely by those in urban and suburban areas.
The lowest-attainment counties, meanwhile, are heavily concentrated in rural areas. Of the bottom 10 percent of counties in terms of attainment, 84 percent can be classified as mostly or completely rural.
Communities with low attainment are most heavily concentrated in the Southern United States, running from the borders of Texas and Oklahoma to the Atlantic Ocean. About 21 million adults without a college degree live in rural counties. Poverty rates in rural places are higher than they are on average and, in particular, affect those without a college degree.
Though Why is attainment so low in rural counties? Certainly, in some cases, these areas lack access to postsecondary options. Geography is a key factor in college attendance, as 56 percent of students at public four-year colleges grew up less than 50 miles from their campus, and the median community college student travels eight miles to get to school.
Without a college nearby, adults in these communities—particularly those living in poverty—must rely on low-skilled work or on training provided by an employer. Children in these communities may not see postsecondary education as an option, making earning a degree an unlikely proposition and perpetuating the cycle of poverty.
Add to this the mounting challenges associated with accessing higher education, such as increasing costs and reduced purchasing power of federal grants, and people in these communities are left to rely on industries in which worker power has declined and wages have stagnated.
Although online postsecondary options exist, they are not a viable answer for most Americans. Studies have shown that online education reduces GPAs and increases the risk of dropping out, especially for students who are underprepared for college-level coursework. Although some online options, such as Southern New Hampshire University, have built online programs geared toward returning students, it may be difficult for adults who have been out of school for years to commit to a virtual classroom, particularly if they are still working and caring for a family.
Nye County, Nevada, provides a case study for the challenging choices that Americans living in rural areas face when making postsecondary decisions. Nevada stands out from other states, in part because it has very large counties, but also because it has such a sparse distribution of colleges.
Nevada was the last state to set up a community college system. Much of the state—and most of Nye County—is considered unpopulated, and hundreds of miles can separate one community from another. GBC has attempted to expand its reach into more rural areas of the state by leveraging technology. Prospective students in rural locations who are interested in these programs can request that classes be offered locally via interactive video.
But this model is not ideal. The campus location in Nye County—the Pahrump Valley Center—is responsible for administering classes in seven locations around Nye and neighboring Esmeralda counties, six of which are more than two hours from campus.
At first glance, it may seem like urban areas do not have an attainment problem. Of the top U. And U. Despite the high overall rates of attainment, urban areas have a distressing problem: High-attainment counties are also home to some of the largest racial and ethnic attainment gaps in the country.
The concentration of highly educated people obscures the low attainment rates of many within their communities—mostly people of color and, in particular, black and Latinx Americans. Though significant racial and ethnic gaps exist throughout the country, they are largest in urban areas.
In the counties with the worst attainment gaps, 42 97 percent of adults live in urban areas, including those that house New York City 56 percentage point gap ; Denver 47 percentage point gap ; San Francisco 44 percentage point gap ; Boston 42 percentage point gap ; Atlanta 41 percentage point gap ; Los Angeles 35 percentage point gap ; and Chicago 32 percentage point gap. Large racial and ethnic gaps also exist in college towns—particularly those that house flagship campuses.
This includes the counties that boast the University of Virginia 50 percentage point gap ; the University of Colorado Boulder 40 percentage point gap ; the University of Texas at Austin 37 percentage point gap ; and the University of California, Berkeley 36 percentage point gap. High attainment rates in these places are not driven by students, as most are not over the age of It is not a shortage of nearby campuses that limits access to higher education in certain urban communities.
Urban areas are home to nearly 8, college campuses, 66 percent of the total number of campuses nationwide. As a result of these inequities, black households hold significantly less wealth than their white counterparts, even after accounting for education, marital status, age, and income level.
In Washington, D. While nationally, there is slightly less than one adult with a graduate degree for every one adult without a high school diploma, in Washington, there are 3. But the D. Those without a degree have not shared in the economic boom that has occurred in the district over the past decade.
This is in part due to the huge influx of college-educated young adults into the district, most of whom are white. Though Washington was 70 percent black in , that presence has eroded due to such gentrification. Washington also has extremely low access to affordable colleges, especially those that are open enrollment—meaning they allow students to be admitted based on limited criteria.
The only public institution within city limits, the University of the District of Columbia, enrolls fewer than 5, students every year, 50 and the district spends just 1 percent of its local funds budget on the school.
Some cities may be home to a lot of colleges, but access to high-quality institutions is another story entirely. Hialeah, Florida, a city that borders Miami, boasts a distressing statistic: 17 of its 18 college campuses are for-profits. Though this high concentration of for-profits is not common, Hialeah is not alone.
More than half of the colleges in Anaheim, California; Austin, Texas; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and Tempe, Arizona, among other large metropolitan areas, are proprietary, or for-profit, institutions. The proliferation of for-profit colleges raises serious concerns for the residents of Hialeah, more than 95 percent of whom are Hispanic or Latinx. Twenty-five programs offered by for-profit colleges in Hialeah have been evaluated under the gainful employment rule, which measures the debt-to-income ratio of students who complete certain programs.
Furthermore, time and ease are major considerations for adult learners, and for-profits tend to play into these concerns. Even though the for-profit programs in Hialeah largely prove to be of low value, many of these schools promise a quick path to a credential, which can be very tempting for low-income adults contending with stagnant wages and a high cost of living.
This research highlights just how important place-based postsecondary and workforce development policies are in the United States. No one solution can address college access and attainment, and these issues are never cut and dried.
For example, rural America is commonly perceived as mostly white—and indeed, 94 percent of rural counties do have a white majority. However, there are still rural counties, mostly concentrated in the Southern United States, with a majority-minority population. Deep, systemic inequities have long pushed people of color out of postsecondary education. For centuries, black, Latinx, and Native Americans were largely excluded from higher education, leaving them without the ability to build the wealth and institutional legacies that currently benefit many white families.
The children of people of color disproportionately enroll in K schools with fewer resources and poorer outcomes than those in high-income districts, meaning these students leave school less prepared for college.
If policymakers are looking to reduce reliance on means-tested benefits and improve overall economic prosperity, they would do well to better support educational options for adults, especially those who have dropped out of high school or college.
While the federal government needs to do much more to support access to high-quality higher education, progress ultimately requires a community effort, involving states, colleges, local government, employers, and community leaders.
We are committed to the promotion of diversity in the broadest sense. We highly value the dignity and worth of individuals inclusive of their gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, age, physical and mental abilities, religious beliefs, socioeconomic class, and other identities. Valuing diversity also extends to diversity of thought and perspective. We promote and create a dynamic community for personal transformation and social change with an atmosphere of respect and trust in which individuals explore, discuss, and express their beliefs with one another. The Patricia Kain Knaub Center for Student Success and Watson Family Center for Student Development provide welcoming entry points and continuing resources for integrated academic programming and student services. The Centers serve as leaders within the OSU system and to education and human sciences academic units nationally to elevate academic advising, the first-year experience, leadership development, student engagement and career development through purposeful and integrated programming and support services that develop students into active intentional learners. The Centers offer the following comprehensive and integrated services to undergraduate students in the College of Education and Human Sciences:.
A high school student in Ruleville, Mississippi, adjusts his cap in preparation for his graduation ceremony, May In the heart of the Arkansas Delta lies Lee County, a rural area with a deep history. Cotton, an industry sustained by slaves and, later, African American sharecroppers, once ruled Lee County. A student living in the county seat, Marianna, for example, would have to drive 18 miles to get to the nearest community college campus—more than twice as far as the average community college student typically commutes. The closest four-year, public, in-state option would require a four-hour round trip.
This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by [email protected]UARK. Higher education institutions commonly play a role in community development. Rural in rural Western Oklahoma participated in the three-round survey process. In the initial Thank you all for your willingness to serve students in this.
Rural school leaders are met with serious challenges and opportunities to lead rural schools in times of normalcy, but these challenges are amplified during a crisis. Rural school principals in the United States faced an unprecedented crisis when school buildings closed in spring due to the COVID pandemic. The measure of rural school principals and their response to this crisis is exemplified through their leadership practices.
Local Scholarships Organization of Rural Oklahoma Schools Scholarship. Oklahoma Schools Insurance Group Scholarship. Carnegie Community Service Scholarship. CKEnergy Scholarship.
ГЛАВА 64 Сьюзан осталась одна в тишине и сумерках Третьего узла. Стоявшая перед ней задача была проста: войти в компьютер Хейла, найти ключ и уничтожить все следы его переписки с Танкадо. Нигде не должно остаться даже намека на Цифровую крепость.
Где же. Наверняка Сьюзан уже начала волноваться. Уж не уехала ли она в Стоун-Мэнор без .
Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил. Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк.
Это хорошо защищенный почтовый ящик, и мне лишь случайно удалось на него наткнуться. - Он выдержал паузу. - Итак, если Танкадо хотел, чтобы мы обнаружили его почту, зачем ему понадобился секретный адрес. Сьюзан снова задумалась. - Может быть, для того, чтобы вы не заподозрили, что это приманка.
schools, and one-fifth of students in the United States are located in rural areas (White House Rural. Council OKLAHOMA. OREGON Limited access to advanced courses shapes the curricular path of many rural students at the.
Должен быть другой выход. - Да, - в сердцах бросил Джабба. - Шифр-убийца. Но единственный человек, которому известен ключ, мертв. - А метод грубой силы? - предложил Бринкерхофф.
Сьюзан ждала продолжения, но его не последовало. - Больше трех часов. Стратмор кивнул. Она не выглядела взволнованной. - Новая диагностика.
Есть шанс, что его партнер пока ничего не знает. Испанские власти обещали придержать информацию - столько, сколько смогут. Мы узнали об этом лишь благодаря оперативности КОМИНТа. - Стратмор внимательно посмотрел не .
Чатрукьян еще раз обвел глазами пустую лабораторию и нахмурился. - Где же он, черт возьми. Глядя на оживающий монитор, он подумал, известно ли Стратмору, что в лаборатории систем безопасности нет ни души.
- Это грязный трюк. - Трюк? - Теперь уже Стратмор не мог скрыть свое раздражение. - Это вовсе не трюк.
Это и был Санта-Крус, квартал, в котором находится второй по величине собор в мире, а также живут самые старинные и благочестивые католические семьи Севильи. Беккер пересек мощенную камнем площадь. Единственный выстрел, к счастью, прозвучал слишком поздно. Беккер на своем мотоцикле скрылся в узком проходе Каллита-де-ля-Вирген. ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки.
Вы действительно собираетесь пристрелить Грега Хейла. - Нет. - Стратмор хмуро посмотрел на нее и двинулся к двери. - Но будем надеяться, что он этого не узнает. ГЛАВА 76 У подъезда севильского аэропорта стояло такси с работающим на холостом ходу двигателем и включенным счетчиком.
- Женщина положила трубку. Вторая попытка также ни к чему не привела. Беккер заглянул в телефонный справочник. Оставался последний номер.
The Oklahoma State System of Higher Education is the state's legal structure for providing public education at the collegiate level.Ovid B. 07.05.2021 at 08:25
Voices from Rural Oklahoma: Where's Education Headed on the Plain? [ 5 ] Students have a variety of opportunities to access diverse course options, but online gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications//econ/madvirgin.orgGeneviГЁve D. 07.05.2021 at 10:08
The purpose of this study is to inform state policymakers and local districts on the issues surrounding distance education in K schooling and in particular the need for distance education adoption in rural schools.Shatay 07.05.2021 at 22:29
Oklahoma is committed to engaging stakeholders through a unified and Table 14 Teacher Effectiveness Gap Analysis: Rural and Small Town Schools take to ensure that low-income and minority students are not taught at higher rates than other The development of new, rigorous College and Career Ready Standards.