File Name: solution of computer networks by peterson and davie .zip
Publisher: Larry Peterson and Bruce Davie.
Exercises are sorted roughly by section, not difficulty. While some exercises are more difficult than others, none are intended to be fiendishly tricky.
Exercises are sorted roughly by section, not difficulty. While some exercises are more difficult than others, none are intended to be fiendishly tricky. A few exercises notably, though not exclusively, the ones that involve calculating simple probabilities require a modest amount of mathematical background; most do not. There is a sidebar summarizing much of the applicable basic probability theory in Chapter 2.
An occasional exercise is awkwardly or ambiguously worded in the text. This manual sometimes suggests better versions; also see the errata at the web site. Where appropriate, relevant supplemental files for these solutions e. If you have any questions about these support materials, please contact your Morgan Kaufmann sales representative. If you would like to contribute your own teaching materials to this site, please contact our Associate Editor Rachel Roumeliotis, We welcome bug reports and suggestions as to improvements for both the exercises and the solutions; these may be sent to Larry Peterson Bruce Davie February, Success here depends largely on the ability of one s search tool to separate out the chaff.
We will count the transfer as completed when the last data bit arrives at its destination. An alternative interpretation would be to count until the last ACK arrives back at the sender, in which case the time would be half an RTT 50 ms longer.
One RTT after the handshaking we send two packets. Total time is RTTs, or 1. The answer is in the book. Postal addresses are strongly hierarchical with a geographical hierarchy, which network addressing may or may not use. Addresses also provide embedded routing information. Unlike typical network addresses, postal addresses are long and of variable length and contain a certain amount of redundant information. This last attribute makes them more tolerant of minor errors and inconsistencies.
Telephone numbers are more similar to network addresses although phone numbers are nowadays apparently more like network host names than addresses : they are geographically hierarchical, fixed-length, administratively assigned, and in more-or-less one-to-one correspondence with nodes. One approach for this is to make addresses hierarchical. Another property might be administratively assigned, versus, say, the factoryassigned addresses used by Ethernet.
Other address attributes that might be relevant are fixed-length v. If you phone a toll-free number for a large retailer, any of dozens of phones may answer. Arguably, then, all these phones have the same non-unique address. A more traditional application for non-unique addresses might be for reaching any of several equivalent servers or routers. Video or audio teleconference transmissions among a reasonably large number of widely spread sites would be an excellent candidate: unicast would require a separate connection between each pair of sites, while broadcast would send far too much traffic to sites not interested in receiving it.
Trying to reach any of several equivalent servers or routers might be another use for multicast, although broadcast tends to work acceptably well for things on this scale. For both mechanisms bandwidth that goes unused by one channel is simply wasted, not available to other channels.
Computer communications are bursty and have long idle periods; such usage patterns would magnify this waste. Again, the connection requirements for computing tend to be too dynamic for this; at the very least, this would pretty much preclude using one channel per connection. Technically this does presume that the underlying protocol uses a large message size or window size; stop-and-wait transmission as in Section 2.
We are assuming here that no ACKs are sent, and that the switches can keep up and can buffer at least one packet. Alternatively, each link can hold bits and the switch can hold bits.
So the question really asks how many packet headers does it take to exceed bytes, which is Thus for files 86, bytes or longer, using packets results in more total data sent on the wire. The following table show the latency results of varying the parameters by solving for the n where circuits become faster, as above.
This table does not show how rapidly the performance diverges; for varying p it can be significant. The model only considers the network implications, and does not take into account usage of processing or state storage capabilities on the switches. The model also ignores the presence of other traffic or of more complicated topologies.
For music we would need considerably more bandwidth, but we could tolerate high but bounded delays. We could not necessarily tolerate higher jitter, though; see Section We might accept an audible error in voice traffic every few seconds; we might reasonably want the error rate during music transmission to be a hundredfold smaller.
Audible errors would come either from outright packet loss, or from jitter a packet s not arriving on time. Latency requirements for music, however, might be much lower; a severalsecond delay would be inconsequential. Voice traffic has at least a tenfold faster requirement here. Latency is relevant only if it dominates bandwidth; jitter and average bandwidth are inconsequential.
No lost data is acceptable, but without real-time requirements we can simply retransmit lost data. We may be willing to accept higher latency than a , also.
If data were continually generated, rather than bursty, we might be concerned mostly with average bandwidth rather than peak, and if the data really were routine we might just accept a certain fraction of loss. Some lost data might be acceptable; e. We could tolerate multisecond latency delays; the primary restriction is that if the monitoring revealed a need for intervention then we still have time to act.
Considerable loss, even of entire frames, would be acceptable. Latency, however, could be hours. Jitter would be limited only by our capacity absorb the arrivaltime variations by buffering. Some loss would be acceptable, but large losses would be visually annoying. In STDM the offered timeslices are always the same length, and are wasted if they are unused by the assigned station. The round-robin access mechanism would generally give each station only as much time as it needed to transmit, or none if the station had nothing to send, and so network utilization would be expected to be much higher.
Otherwise a very old packet might. In each case we assume the local clock starts at a Latency: The others will be ignored; eventually they will time out. When the first client exits, any queued connections are processed. Thus, two clients can now talk simultaneously; their messages will be interleaved on the server. One can list all 5-bit sequences and count, but here is another approach: there are 2 3 sequences that start with 00, and 2 3 that end with There are two sequences, and , that do both.
Thus there would have been enough 5-bit codes meeting the stronger requirement; however, additional codes are needed for control sequences. The stuffed bits zeros are in bold: The marks each position where a stuffed 0 bit was removed. Thus, if station B s clock ran faster than station A s by one part in ,, A would accumulate about one extra frame per minute. Suppose an undetectable three-bit error occurs. The three bad bits must be spread among one, two, or three rows.
If these bits occupy two or three rows, then some row must have exactly one bad bit, which would be detected by the parity bit for that row. But if the three bits are all in one row, then that row must again have a parity error as must each of the three columns containing the bad bits. If we flip the bits corresponding to the corners of a rectangle in the 2-D layout of the data, then all parity bits will still be correct. Furthermore, if four bits change and no error is detected, then the bad bits must form a rectangle: in order for the error to go undetected, each row and column must have no errors or exactly two errors.
If we know only one bit is bad, then 2-D parity tells us which row and column it is in, and we can then flip it. If, however, two bits are bad in the same row, then the row parity remains correct, and all we can identify is the columns in which the bad bits occur.
We need to show that the 1 s-complement sum of two non-0x numbers is non-0x If no unsigned overflow occurs, then the sum is just the 2 scomplement sum and can t be without overflow; in the absence of overflow, addition is monotonic. If overflow occurs, then the result is at least 0x plus the addition of a carry bit, i. Consider only the 1 s complement sum of the bit words.
If we decrement a low-order byte in the data, we decrement the sum by 1, and can incrementally revise the old checksum by decrementing it by 1 as well. If we decrement a high-order byte, we must decrement the old checksum by Here is a rather combinatorial approach. Let a, b, c, d be bit words. It suffices to show that if we take the bit 1 s complement sum of [a, b] and [c, d], and then add upper and lower 16 bits, we get the bit 1 s-complement sum of a, b, c, and d.
The basic case is supposed to work something like this. There are a couple annoying special cases, however, in the preceding, where a sum is 0xFFFF and so adding in a carry bit triggers an additional overflow. We handle the 0xFFFF cases separately.
Alternatively, we may adopt a more algebraic approach. We may treat a buffer consisting of n-bit blocks as a large number written in base 2 n. The numeric value of this buffer is congruent mod 2 n 1 to the exact sum of the digits, that is to the exact sum of the blocks. If this latter sum has more than n bits, we can repeat the process. We end up with the n-bit 1 s-complement sum, which is thus the remainder upon dividing the original number by 2 n 1.
Let b be the value of the original buffer. The bit checksum is thus b mod If we fold the upper and lower halves, we get b mod 2 32 1 mod 2 16 1 , and, because is divisible by , this is b mod 2 16 1 , the bit checksum. Now if m 1 is transmuted into m 2 by a two-bit error, then the error-code e cannot detect this. Any element of M can be transmuted into any other by an 8-bit error. To find a sufficiently large N, we note N!
Considerably smaller estimates are possible. Assume a NAK is sent only when an out-of-order packet arrives. Unfortunately, if the sender sends a packet and is then idle for a while, and this packet is lost, the receiver has no way of noticing the loss.
Report Download. We are providing instructors with a generic password that will work past this 6month period of time under the condition that this password is not distributed by instructors to students or professionals. We appreciate your discretion. Exercises are sorted roughly by section, not difculty. While some exercises are more difcult than others, none are intended to be endishly tricky.
Old Material Links. Download CN notes pdf unit — 1. For courses in Business Data Communication and Networking. An introduction to computer networking grounded in real-world examples. In Computer Networks, Tanenbaum et al. The Fifth Edition of Computer Networks: A Systems Approach is well-suited for the serious student of computer networks, though it remains accessible to the more casual reader as well. A few exercisesFile Size: 1MB.
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Computer Networks, Fourth Edition, continues to provide an enduring, practical understanding of networks and their building blocks through rich, example-based instruction. This expanded and completely updated edition covers the why of network design, focusing not just the specifications comprising today's systems but how key technologies and protocols actually work in the real world to. A few exercisesFile Size: 1MB. A few exercises. Unlike static PDF Computer Networks A Systems Approach solution manuals or printed answer keys, our experts show you how to solve each problem step-by-step.
Сэр? - Беккер легонько потормошил спящего. - Простите, сэр… Человек не шевельнулся. Беккер предпринял очередную попытку: - Сэр. Старик заворочался. - Qu'est-ce… quelle heureest… - Он медленно открыл глаза, посмотрел на Беккера и скорчил гримасу, недовольный тем, что его потревожили. - Qu'est-ce-que vous voulez. Ясно, подумал Беккер с улыбкой.
И, как бы повинуясь неведомому сигналу, между стенами слева от него мелькнула тень. Нет сомнений, что человеческий мозг все же совершеннее самого быстродействующего компьютера в мире. В какую-то долю секунды сознание Беккера засекло очки в металлической оправе, обратилось к памяти в поисках аналога, нашло его и, подав сигнал тревоги, потребовало принять решение. Он отбросил бесполезный мотоцикл и пустился бежать со всех ног. К несчастью для Беккера, вместо неуклюжего такси Халохот обрел под ногами твердую почву. Спокойно подняв пистолет, он выстрелил. Пуля задела Беккера в бок, когда он уже почти обогнул угол здания.
Стратмор также понимал, что первым делом нужно разрядить ситуацию. Выдержав паузу, он как бы нехотя вздохнул: - Хорошо, Грег. Ты выиграл. Чего ты от меня хочешь. Молчание. Хейл сразу же растерялся, не зная, как истолковать примирительный тон коммандера, и немного ослабил хватку на горле Сьюзан.
Рядом с собором на сто двадцать метров вверх, прямо в занимающуюся зарю, поднималась башня Гиральда.
ГЛАВА 64 Сьюзан осталась одна в тишине и сумерках Третьего узла. Стоявшая перед ней задача была проста: войти в компьютер Хейла, найти ключ и уничтожить все следы его переписки с Танкадо. Нигде не должно остаться даже намека на Цифровую крепость. Сьюзан снова завладели прежние сомнения: правильно ли они поступают, решив сохранить ключ и взломать Цифровую крепость. Ей было не по себе, хотя пока, можно сказать, им сопутствовала удача.
Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано. Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни.