File Name: causes and effects of global temperature change .zip
Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases , and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change , since the midth century humans have had unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale. Temperature rise on land is about twice the global average increase, leading to desert expansion and more common heat waves and wildfires.
Global Warming - Impacts and Future Perspective. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities are believed to be main contributors to such increases in average global temperatures. The climate change, caused by rising emissions of carbon dioxide from vehicles, factories and power stations, will not only effects the atmosphere and the sea but also will alter the geology of the Earth. Emissions of carbon dioxide due to our use of fossil energy will change the climate and the temperature is estimated to increase by 2 to 6 o Celsius within year , which is a tremendous increase from our current average temperature of 1.
The effects of climate change on humans are far reaching and include effects on health, environment, displacement and migration , security, society, human settlement , energy, and transport. Climate change has brought about possibly irreversible alterations to Earth's geological, biological, and ecological systems. A growing body of research explores the many impacts of climate change on human health, food supply, economic growth , migration , security, societal change, and public goods , such as drinking water. The consequences of these changes can help or hurt local human populations. For example, climatic changes in Siberia are expected to improve food production and local economic activity in the short to medium term.
Climate change causes a variety of physical impacts on the climate system. The physical impacts of climate change foremost include globally rising temperatures of the lower atmosphere, the land, and oceans. Temperature rise is not uniform, with land masses and the Arctic region warming faster than the global average. Effects on weather encompass increased heavy precipitation , reduced amounts of cold days, increase in heat waves and various effects on tropical cyclones. The enhanced greenhouse effect causes the higher part of the atmosphere, the stratosphere , to cool. Geochemical cycles are also impacted, with absorption of CO 2 causing ocean acidification , and rising ocean water decreasing the ocean's ability to absorb further carbon dioxide.
Models that account only for the effects of natural processes are not able to explain the warming observed over the past century. Models that also account for the greenhouse gases emitted by humans are able to explain this warming. Click the image to view a larger version. When incoming energy from the sun is absorbed by the Earth system, Earth warms. When absorbed energy is released back into space, Earth cools. This record shows that the climate system varies naturally over a wide range of time scales. In general, climate changes prior to the Industrial Revolution in the s can be explained by natural causes, such as changes in solar energy, volcanic eruptions, and natural changes in greenhouse gas GHG concentrations.
The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is continually in motion. Both its physical properties and its rate and direction of motion are influenced by a variety of factors, including solar radiation , the geographic position of continents , ocean currents , the location and orientation of mountain ranges, atmospheric chemistry , and vegetation growing on the land surface. All these factors change through time. Some factors, such as the distribution of heat within the oceans , atmospheric chemistry, and surface vegetation, change at very short timescales. Others, such as the position of continents and the location and height of mountain ranges, change over very long timescales. Therefore, climate, which results from the physical properties and motion of the atmosphere, varies at every conceivable timescale.
Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires. There is broad-based agreement within the scientific community that climate change is real. The U. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration concur that climate change is indeed occurring and is almost certainly due to human activity.
The impacts of climate change on people and nature are increasingly apparent. Unprecedented flooding, heat waves, and wildfires have cost billions in damages.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. All the human causes of global environmental change happen through a subset of proximate causes, which directly alter aspects of the environment in ways that have global effects. We begin this chapter by outlining and illustrating an approach to accounting for the major proximate causes of global change, and then proceed to the more difficult issue of explaining them.
Jump to navigation. And yes, it's really happening. Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And scientists say that unless we curb global-warming emissions, average U.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Climate change poses significant risks for a wide range of human and natural systems.
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