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Difference Between Internal Combustion Engine And External Combustion Engine Pdf

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Internal-combustion engine

An internal combustion engine ICE is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer usually air in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high- temperature and high- pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , a rotor , or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where weight or size of the engine is important.

The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent , such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines , jet engines and most rocket engines , each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. In contrast, in external combustion engines , such as steam or Stirling engines , energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products.

Working fluids for external combustion engines include air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft and boats.

ICEs are typically powered by fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline , diesel fuel or fuel oil. Renewable fuels like biodiesel are used in compression ignition CI engines and bioethanol or ETBE ethyl tert-butyl ether produced from bioethanol in spark ignition SI engines. Renewable fuels are commonly blended with fossil fuels. Hydrogen , which is rarely used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.

In , John Barber developed the gas turbine. In Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. Also in , Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was also the first to use liquid fuel , and built an engine around that time. In , John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In , De Rivaz fitted his invention to a primitive working vehicle — "the world's first internal combustion powered automobile".

In , Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In , Nicolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.

In , American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In , Nicolaus Otto , working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach , patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In , Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine.

Later, in , Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In , Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine. In , Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In , the Heinkel He became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine via Old French , from Latin ingenium , "ability" meant any piece of machinery —a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine.

A "motor" from Latin motor , "mover" is any machine that produces mechanical power. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines"; however, combustion engines are often referred to as "motors".

An electric engine refers to a locomotive operated by electricity. In boating, an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles , including automobiles , motorcycles , ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives some are electrical but most use Diesel engines [11] [12]. Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles, aircraft and motorcycles.

These are collectively known as internal-combustion-engine vehicles ICEV. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines.

Powered aircraft typically uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts ; both of which are types of turbines. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive large electric generators that power electrical grids.

Combined cycle power plants use the high temperature exhaust to boil and superheat water steam to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the combustion engine alone. In a smaller scale, stationary engines like Gas engine or Diesel generators are used for backup or for providing electrical power to areas not connected to an electric grid. The base of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is the engine block , which is typically made of cast iron or aluminium.

The engine block contains the cylinders. In engines with more than one cylinder they are usually arranged either in 1 row straight engine or 2 rows boxer engine or V engine ; 3 rows are occasionally used W engine in contemporary engines, and other engine configurations are possible and have been used. Single cylinder engines are common for motorcycles and in small engines of machinery.

Water-cooled engines contain passages in the engine block where cooling fluid circulates the water jacket. Some small engines are air-cooled, and instead of having a water jacket the cylinder block has fins protruding away from it to cool by directly transferring heat to the air.

The cylinder walls are usually finished by honing to obtain a cross hatch , which is better able to retain the oil. A too rough surface would quickly harm the engine by excessive wear on the piston. The pistons are short cylindrical parts which seal one end of the cylinder from the high pressure of the compressed air and combustion products and slide continuously within it while the engine is in operation.

The top wall of the piston is termed its crown and is typically flat or concave. Some two-stroke engines use pistons with a deflector head. Pistons are open at the bottom and hollow except for an integral reinforcement structure the piston web. When an engine is working, the gas pressure in the combustion chamber exerts a force on the piston crown which is transferred through its web to a gudgeon pin.

Each piston has rings fitted around its circumference that mostly prevent the gases from leaking into the crankcase or the oil into the combustion chamber. A ventilation system drives the small amount of gas that escapes past the pistons during normal operation the blow-by gases out of the crankcase so that it does not accumulate contaminating the oil and creating corrosion.

In two-stroke gasoline engines the crankcase is part of the air—fuel path and due to the continuous flow of it they do not need a separate crankcase ventilation system.

The cylinder head is attached to the engine block by numerous bolts or studs. It has several functions. The cylinder head seals the cylinders on the side opposite to the pistons; it contains short ducts the ports for intake and exhaust and the associated intake valves that open to let the cylinder be filled with fresh air and exhaust valves that open to allow the combustion gases to escape. However, 2-stroke crankcase scavenged engines connect the gas ports directly to the cylinder wall without poppet valves; the piston controls their opening and occlusion instead.

The cylinder head also holds the spark plug in the case of spark ignition engines and the injector for engines that use direct injection.

All CI engines use fuel injection, usually direct injection but some engines instead use indirect injection. SI engines can use a carburetor or fuel injection as port injection or direct injection. Most SI engines have a single spark plug per cylinder but some have 2.

A head gasket prevents the gas from leaking between the cylinder head and the engine block. The opening and closing of the valves is controlled by one or several camshafts and springs—or in some engines—a desmodromic mechanism that uses no springs.

The camshaft may press directly the stem of the valve or may act upon a rocker arm , again, either directly or through a pushrod. The crankcase is sealed at the bottom with a sump that collects the falling oil during normal operation to be cycled again.

The cavity created between the cylinder block and the sump houses a crankshaft that converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons to rotational motion. The crankshaft is held in place relative to the engine block by main bearings , which allow it to rotate. Bulkheads in the crankcase form a half of every main bearing; the other half is a detachable cap. In some cases a single main bearing deck is used rather than several smaller caps. A connecting rod is connected to offset sections of the crankshaft the crankpins in one end and to the piston in the other end through the gudgeon pin and thus transfers the force and translates the reciprocating motion of the pistons to the circular motion of the crankshaft.

The end of the connecting rod attached to the gudgeon pin is called its small end, and the other end, where it is connected to the crankshaft, the big end. The big end has a detachable half to allow assembly around the crankshaft. It is kept together to the connecting rod by removable bolts.

The cylinder head has an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold attached to the corresponding ports. The intake manifold connects to the air filter directly, or to a carburetor when one is present, which is then connected to the air filter.

It distributes the air incoming from these devices to the individual cylinders. The exhaust manifold is the first component in the exhaust system. It collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders and drives it to the following component in the path. The exhaust system of an ICE may also include a catalytic converter and muffler.

The final section in the path of the exhaust gases is the tailpipe. The top dead center TDC of a piston is the position where it is nearest to the valves; bottom dead center BDC is the opposite position where it is furthest from them. While an engine is in operation, the crankshaft rotates continuously at a nearly constant speed. In a 4-stroke ICE, each piston experiences 2 strokes per crankshaft revolution in the following order. Starting the description at TDC, these are: [16] [17].

The defining characteristic of this kind of engine is that each piston completes a cycle every crankshaft revolution. The 4 processes of intake, compression, power and exhaust take place in only 2 strokes so that it is not possible to dedicate a stroke exclusively for each of them.

Starting at TDC the cycle consist of:. While a 4-stroke engine uses the piston as a positive displacement pump to accomplish scavenging taking 2 of the 4 strokes, a 2-stroke engine uses the last part of the power stroke and the first part of the compression stroke for combined intake and exhaust.

The work required to displace the charge and exhaust gases comes from either the crankcase or a separate blower.

External heat engine

This application includes material which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office files or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever. The present invention relates to an external combustion engine, and more particularly, to a hydrogen fueled external combustion engine and a method to convert an internal combustion engine thereto, with application of this invention being for engines used in transportation, whether on land, water, or in the air. A secondary use may be in stationary engines. Global carbon based fuel consumption in vehicles to move people, as well as deliver goods and services, has created significant air and water quality problems throughout the world, and in particular in industrialized countries. A variety of alternate energy sources intended to replace use of carbon based fuel in powering vehicular transportation have been proposed or developed, however drawbacks to each have limited their viability or implementation on a global scale. The zero emission design ZED engine disclosed herein is designed to combust hydrogen as a fuel.

The main difference between internal and external combustion engine is that in internal combustion engines, the working fluid burns inside the cylinder, whereas in external combustion engines, combustion takes place outside the cylinder and heat is then transferred to the working fluid. In an internal combustion engine, the working fluid consists of a combustible fluid placed inside a cylinder. Four-stroke Diesel and petrol gasoline engines are internal combustion engines. In these engines, the fluid undergoes combustion inside the cylinder and expands. The expansion pushes a piston which is attached to a crankshaft and produces motion.


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Difference Between Internal and External Combustion Engine

An external combustion engine EC engine is a heat engine where a working fluid , contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine, produces motion and usable work. In these types of engines, the combustion is primarily used as a heat source, and the engine can work equally well with other types of heat sources.

An external heat engine EHE refers to any engine that receives its heat from a source other than the fluid that makes the engine work. The most common type of EHE is the external combustion engine, which is used in many power plant designs. External heat engines are generally steam engines, and they differ from internal combustion engines in that the heat source is separate from the fluid that does work.

An engine is a device that converts one form of energy into another. A heat engine is a machine in which the chemical energy of a fuel transformed into thermal energy by combustion to produce mechanical work. Heat engines may be classified according to the place where combustion takes place.

Difference Between Internal and External Combustion Engine

Internal-combustion engine , any of a group of devices in which the reactants of combustion oxidizer and fuel and the products of combustion serve as the working fluids of the engine. Such an engine gains its energy from heat released during the combustion of the nonreacted working fluids, the oxidizer-fuel mixture. This process occurs within the engine and is part of the thermodynamic cycle of the device.

Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine ICE is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer usually air in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high- temperature and high- pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , a rotor , or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where weight or size of the engine is important. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent , such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines , jet engines and most rocket engines , each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.

An external combustion engine is a heat engine where an internal working fluid is compressed and heated by combustion of an external fuel through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine piston or turbine , produces a shaft power. Steam engines and Stirling engines are most known external combustion engines.

Internal combustion engines provide outstanding drivability and durability, with more than million highway transportation vehicles in the United States relying on them. Along with gasoline or diesel, they can also utilize renewable or alternative fuels e. Combustion, also known as burning, is the basic chemical process of releasing energy from a fuel and air mixture. In an internal combustion engine ICE , the ignition and combustion of the fuel occurs within the engine itself. The engine then partially converts the energy from the combustion to work. The engine consists of a fixed cylinder and a moving piston. The expanding combustion gases push the piston, which in turn rotates the crankshaft.

External combustion engine

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Этот волшебный вечер был шесть месяцев назад, до того как Дэвида неожиданно назначили главой факультета современных языков. С тех пор их отношения развивались с быстротой скольжения по склону горы. ГЛАВА 4 Потайная дверь издала сигнал, выведя Сьюзан из состояния печальной задумчивости. Дверь повернулась до положения полного открытия. Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем.

 - У вас, часом, нет такой же под рукой. - Не в этом дело! - воскликнула Сьюзан, внезапно оживившись. Это как раз было ее специальностью.  - Дело в том, что это и есть ключ. Энсей Танкадо дразнит нас, заставляя искать ключ в считанные минуты. И при этом подбрасывает подсказки, которые нелегко распознать. - Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба.

Агент Колиандер нажал несколько кнопок, и кадры стали сменяться быстрее. Люди на подиуме с нетерпением ждали, когда на экране появится их бывший сослуживец Энсей Танкадо. Ускоренное проигрывание видеозаписи придавало изображению некоторую комичность. Вот Танкадо вышел на открытое место и залюбовался открывшимся перед ним зрелищем. Он козырьком поднес руку к глазам и стал разглядывать шпили над внушительным фасадом. - Смотрите внимательно, - предупредил Смит.  - Халохот - профессионал.

Difference Between Internal and External Combustion Engine

 Кого? - спросил он чуть осипшим голосом.

Хейл хорошо знал, что этот лифт делает только одну остановку - на Подземном шоссе, недоступном для простых смертных лабиринте туннелей, по которым скрытно перемешается высокое начальство агентства. Он не имел ни малейшего желания затеряться в подвальных коридорах АНБ с сопротивляющейся изо всех сил заложницей. Это смертельная ловушка. Если даже он выберется на улицу, у него нет оружия.

Казалось, старик испытал сильнейшее разочарование. Он медленно откинулся на гору подушек. Лицо его было несчастным.

Internal Combustion Engine Basics

Но если она окажется впереди, он подставит Стратмору спину. Волоча Сьюзан за собой, он использовал ее как живой щит.

Девушка, заметно смутившись, посмотрела на свою руку. - Это нацарапал мой дружок… ужасно глупо, правда. Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова. Проваливай и умри.

В дальнем конце палаты появилась медсестра и быстро направилась к. - Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер. - Немец называл эту женщину… Беккер слегка потряс Клушара за плечи, стараясь не дать ему провалиться в забытье. Глаза канадца на мгновение блеснули.

Во рту у него был фонарик в виде авторучки, в руке - паяльник, а на животе лежала большая схема компьютера. Он только что установил новый комплект аттенюаторов на неисправную материнскую плату, когда внезапно ожил его мобильный. - Проклятие! - выругался он, потянувшись к телефону сквозь сплетение проводов.

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Amanda B. 01.05.2021 at 05:05

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