File Name: deforestation and its causes .zip
Deforestation is one of the major causes to the environmental degradation which is affected by the agents like small farmers, ranches, loggers and plantation companies. There is a broad consensus that expansion of cropped areas and pastures are a major source of deforestation.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines deforestation as the "permanent removal of standing forests. Deforestation is the clearing, destroying, or otherwise removal of trees through deliberate, natural, or accidental means. It can occur in any area densely populated by trees and other plant life, but the majority of it is currently happening in the Amazon rainforest. The loss of trees and other vegetation can cause climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, flooding, increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and a host of problems for indigenous people. It was only after the onset of the modern era that it became an epidemic.
Deforestation , clearance , clearcutting , or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations defines deforestation as the conversion of forest to other land uses regardless of whether it is human-induced. Net change, therefore, can be positive or negative, depending on whether gains exceed losses, or vice versa. For instance, FAO estimate that the global forest carbon stock has decreased 0.
With the world growing at a pace hard to match, the increasing need for space is turning out to be an area of concern. Deforestation, in simple terms, means the felling and clearing of forest cover or tree plantations to accommodate agricultural, industrial or urban use. It involves the permanent end of forest cover to make that land available for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. According to Wikipedia :. Over the last century, the forest cover around the globe has been significantly compromised, leaving the green cover down to an all-time low of about 30 percent. Deforestation can also be seen as removal of forests leading to several imbalances, both ecologically and environmentally. What makes deforestation alarming is the immediate and long term effects it is bound to inflict if continued at the current pace.
As one of countries which has the large tropical forests in the world and the largest in ASEAN, Indonesia has been facing serious deforestation problems. This study tries to extend and explore the causes of deforestation in Central Kalimantan, one of Provinces in Indonesia which has been facing the highest deforestation problem caused by many factors. This study applied a qualitative approach. Data were collected by using interview and focus group discussions. The study found that as a socio political construct, deforestation in Indonesia emerges at the intersection between the biophysical changes of the politically defined forest and the political economic struggles around access and control over forestland resources by domestic and international actors. Hardly is a given issue, the term deforestation itself is still subject to debate as state definition of deforestation is continuously being challenged by the definition developed by civil society members.
The underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation. It is important to distinguish between the agents of deforestation and its causes.
The collapse of the Classic Maya state is investigated from an ecological perspective. Settlement and palynological data from the Maya center of Copan, Honduras, are presented which indicate that substantial clearing of the upland pine forest had occurred prior to and during the abandonment of that urban center. A comparative use- rate analysis suggests that the increased clearing of pine was primarily caused by demands for domestic fuel wood by an expanding urban population. This forest mismanagement is directly linked to accelerated erosion rates which are considered primary elements in the collapse of the Maya state. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
People have been deforesting the Earth for thousands of years, primarily to clear land for crops or livestock. Direct causes of deforestation are agricultural expansion, wood extraction e. Rarely is there a single direct cause for deforestation. Most often, multiple processes work simultaneously or sequentially to cause deforestation. The single biggest direct cause of tropical deforestation is conversion to cropland and pasture, mostly for subsistence, which is growing crops or raising livestock to meet daily needs.
Спасибо, что помогли. Дэвид Беккер повесил трубку. Альфонсо XIII. Он усмехнулся. Просто надо уметь задавать вопросы… Минуту спустя незаметная фигура проследовала за Беккером по калле Делисиас в сгущающейся темноте андалузской ночи. ГЛАВА 29 Все еще нервничая из-за столкновения с Хейлом, Сьюзан вглядывалась в стеклянную стену Третьего узла. В шифровалке не было ни души.
А-а… Зигмунд Шмидт, - с трудом нашелся Беккер.
Именно он и подал ручную команду на отзыв Следопыта. Вопрос насколько. уступил место другому - с какой целью?. У Хейла не было мотивов для вторжения в ее компьютер.
Росио погладила руками свои пышные загорелые формы - дай Бог, чтобы они сохраняли свою привлекательность еще лет пять-шесть, пока она не накопит достаточно денег. Сеньор Ролдан забирал большую часть ее заработка себе, но без него ей пришлось бы присоединиться к бесчисленным шлюхам, что пытаются подцепить пьяных туристов в Триане. А у ее клиентов по крайней мере есть деньги.