File Name: universal declaration on the human genome and human rights .zip
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Bleecker and S.
As the UN Secretary-General affirmed in April , the virus has brought about not only a public health emergency, but also an economic, social and human crisis that is becoming a human-rights crisis. A crisis can be a time of great suffering, of confusion or of disagreement. The most immediate is that of widespread human suffering. So far, more than one million people have died due to the virus, and many more have become seriously ill, requiring emergency care. The latter is partly caused by incomplete scientific knowledge about the virus. For example, it is not entirely clear how far the virus can spread through the air, why people without any apparent prior health conditions can become critically ill, how best to treat COVID patients, the long-term effects of the disease, or for how long the protection provided by antibodies lasts.
Recalling that the Preamble of UNESCO's Constitution refers to "the democratic principles of the dignity, equality and mutual respect of men", rejects any "doctrine of the inequality of men and races", stipulates "that the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of men and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern", proclaims that "peace must be founded upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind", and states that the Organization seeks to advance "through the educational and scientific and cultural relations of the peoples of the world, the objectives of international peace and of the common welfare of mankind for which the United Nations Organization was established and which its Charter proclaims",. Bearing in mind also the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity of 5 June and emphasizing in that connection that the recognition of the genetic diversity of humanity must not give rise to any interpretation of a social or political nature which could call into question "the inherent dignity and Recognizing that research on the human genome and the resulting applications open up vast prospects for progress in improving the health of individuals and of humankind as a whole, but emphasizing that such research should fully respect human dignity, freedom and human rights, as well as the prohibition of all forms of discrimination based on genetic characteristics,. The human genome underlies the fundamental unity of all members of the human family, as well as the recognition of their inherent dignity and diversity. In a symbolic sense, it is the heritage of humanity. The human genome, which by its nature evolves, is subject to mutations. It contains potentialities that are expressed differently according to each individual's natural and social environment including the individual's state of health, living conditions, nutrition and education.
Metrics details. The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties. New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights.
However, while somatic genome editing advances into its clinical trials phase under rigorous and responsible translational criteria, germline genome editing may give rise to an ambiguous interpretation of the internationally recogni s ed prohibition of human germline modification. During the recent Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing held in Hong Kong on November , the first clinical use of germline genome editing was unexpectedly reported by the Chinese researcher He Jiankui , who claimed that it result ed in the birth of two babies. Although this claim has not be en verified, it was at any rate deeply flawed and unethical , as the international scientific community has altogether confirmed. The g ermline genome editing of embryos and gametes poses serious risks of unintended harmful effects , not only for the individual , but also for their descendants.
The Declaration has been cited in many academic and popular journals and has been referred to in numerous national and regional legislation on medicine, privacy and genetic research. UNESCO is currently evaluating the impact of the Declaration worldwide, in accordance with the Guidelines for the Implementation of the Declaration , which the General Conference endorsed at its 30th session. These Guidelines outline the action that different groups must take if the Declaration is to be implemented, and provides guidance as to how these tasks can be achieved.
In February , Dr. Ian Wilmut introduced the world to the first successfully cloned mammal, a sheep named Dolly, drawing widespread attention to the rapid advances being made in the field of biotechnology. The result of this expansion of scientific horizons will be unprecedented knowledge of the building blocks of human life and how to manipulate them. The implications of these developments have been a growing concern of scientists, industry, governments and international organizations for years.
Стратмор покачал головой, и капля пота с его лба упала на стол. - Я не хочу никоим образом нарушать покой директора и говорить с ним о кризисе, в то время как он не в состоянии предпринять хоть что-нибудь. Сьюзан понимала, что коммандер прав. Даже в такие моменты ему удавалось сохранять ясность рассудка. - А вы не думали о том, чтобы позвонить президенту.
Вот что нам надо сделать. - Стратмор начал спокойно излагать свой план. - Мы сотрем всю переписку Хейла с Танкадо, уничтожим записи о том, что я обошел систему фильтров, все диагнозы Чатрукьяна относительно ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о работе компьютера над Цифровой крепостью, одним словом -. Цифровая крепость исчезнет бесследно. Словно ее никогда не. Мы похороним ключ Хейла и станем молиться Богу, чтобы Дэвид нашел копию, которая была у Танкадо. Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан.
Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой.
Пусть ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает, - принял решение Стратмор. - Я хочу быть абсолютно уверен, что это абсолютно стойкий шифр. Чатрукьян продолжал колотить по стеклу.
Единственный выстрел, к счастью, прозвучал слишком поздно. Беккер на своем мотоцикле скрылся в узком проходе Каллита-де-ля-Вирген. ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки.
Он попытался оторвать голову от пола. Мир кругом казался расплывчатым, каким-то водянистым. И снова этот голос. Он присел на корточки и в десяти метрах от себя увидел чей-то силуэт.
Если Танкадо говорит, что алгоритм не поддается взлому, значит, так оно и. - Но ведь для обычных пользователей они все не поддаются взлому. - Верно… - Стратмор задумался.
Католицизм здесь посильнее, чем в самом Ватикане. - У нас, конечно, не все его тело, - добавил лейтенант.
Ten years after its entry into force, the paper relates its history, as well as its social and political value of the Declaration, highlighting its more significant contributions and concluding with a vision of the future.