File Name: the ace gene and human performance 12 years on .zip
Over the last couple of decades, research has focused on attempting to understand the genetic influence on sports performance.
Some 12 years ago, a polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme ACE gene became the first genetic element shown to impact substantially on human physical performance. The renin-angiotensin system RAS exists not just as an endocrine regulator, but also within local tissue and cells, where it serves a variety of functions. Functional genetic polymorphic variants have been identified for most components of RAS, of which the best known and studied is a polymorphism of the ACE gene. The I allele has been consistently demonstrated to be associated with endurance-orientated events, notably, in triathlons.
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Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Low birth weight, a marker of an adverse intrauterine environment, is associated with higher rates of type 2 diabetes.
We measured plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after an oral glucose challenge in a group of men and women, ages yr, with measurements at birth recorded. The ACE I allele is associated with shorter duration of gestation and higher birth weight. The association between the presence of the ACE I allele and increased indices of adult insulin secretion is confined to subjects with low birth weight. We suggest that these findings reflect interactions between genotype and intrauterine environment with resulting changes in gene expression.
Insulin resistance as a programmed response to fetal undernutrition. The fetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Is birth weight related to later glucose and insulin metabolism? Effects of size at birth and childhood growth on the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly individuals. Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Components in the interpretation of the high mortality in the county of Finnmark.
The nutritional basis of the fetal origins of adult disease. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism modulates the consequences of in utero growth retardation on plasma insulin in young adults.
Birthweight, vitamin D receptor genotype and the programming of osteoporosis. Show 10 more references 10 of Smart citations by scite. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles. Explore citation contexts and check if this article has been supported or disputed.
Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations. Maternal deletion allele of Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is associated with fetal growth restriction. Relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion or deletion polymorphism and insulin sensitivity in healthy newborns. The ACE gene and human performance: 12 years on.
The rate and effectiveness of acclimatisation and the susceptibility to AHAI varies markedly between individuals, suggesting a possible genetic influence on high altitude performance. A polymorphism of the human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ACE gene has been identified in which the deletion D-allele , rather than the insertion I-allele , of a base pair sequence is associated with higher circulating and tissue ACE activity. This polymorphism has also been associated with physical performance phenotypes, the ACE I-allele being associated with elite endurance performance. An excess frequency of the ACE I-allele has also been identified in a small sample of elite UK high altitude mountaineers. This thesis set out to test the hypothesis that the ACE I-allele is indeed associated with successful physical performance at high altitude, and to explore the mechanism by which such an advantage may be mediated. I conducted a series of prospective geneenvironment interaction studies to assess whether the ACE I-allele is associated with successful ascent to high altitude and, if such an advantage exists, whether this is mediated by reduced susceptibility to Acute Mountain Sickness AMS or improved oxygen saturations.
In elite sporting codes, the identification and promotion of future athletes into specialised talent pathways is heavily reliant upon objective physical, technical, and tactical characteristics, in addition to subjective coach assessments. More recently, genetic markers, including several single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs , have been correlated with enhanced aerobic capacity, strength, and an overall increase in athletic ability. In this review, we discuss the effects of a number of candidate genes on athletic performance, across single-skilled and multifaceted sporting codes, and propose additional markers for the identification of motor skill acquisition and learning. While displaying some inconsistencies, both the ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms appear to be more prevalent in strength and endurance sporting teams, and have been found to correlate to physical assessments. However, in elucidating the role of genetic markers in athleticism, existing talent identification protocols may significantly improve and ultimately enabletargeted resourcing in junior talent pathways.
It is widely accepted that genetic factors are strongly linked with athletic performance. The gene regulates the ACTN3 protein, which is produced in fast-twitch muscle fibers. ACTN3 protein deficiency results in a lower proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers more slow-twitch muscle fibers which is associated with endurance athletes. ACTN3 protein efficiency results in a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers, which allows fast muscle contractions for sprinting and high muscle strength. Each genotype of the speed gene has a different role and association when it comes to muscle composition. Both have significant differences when you compare power performance, muscle injury, and flexibility.
Metrics details. Genetic polymorphisms that act as potential mediators of the human health and physical performance are targets for many research groups attempting to unravel their role to the genetic predisposition for a superior performance and endurance. There are up to gene variant sequences, 17 mitochondrial DNA markers and 25 additional nuclear genetic markers in the human genetic map which are related to physical performance phenotypes as well as to good physical fitness [ 1 ]. One of the most extensively studied genome variations, widely associated with the human performance over the last decade, was the insertion I or deletion D of bp Alu repeats within intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE gene [rs] [ 2 , 3 ].
Performed literature identification: YY FM. Conceived and designed the experiments: LG FM. Analyzed the data: YY FM.
Трудно даже представить, что происходит там, внизу. - Я пробовал, - прошептал Стратмор еле слышно. Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так. - Что значит - пробовал. Стратмор развернул монитор так, чтобы Сьюзан было. Экран отливал странным темно-бордовым цветом, и в самом его низу диалоговое окно отображало многочисленные попытки выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Сьюзан едва ли не физически ощутила повисшее молчание. Оно показалось ей нескончаемо долгим. Наконец Стратмор заговорил. В его голосе слышалось скорее недоумение, чем шок: - Что ты имеешь в виду. - Хейл… - прошептала Сьюзан.
ACE genotype influences bradykinin levels, and a common gene variant in the bradykinin 2 receptor exists. The high kinin activity haplotye has.
Всю ответственность я беру на. Быстрее. Хейл выслушал все это, не сдвинувшись с места и не веря своим ушам.
Я умер. Но я слышу какие-то звуки. Далекий голос… - Дэвид.
Сигналы тревоги гремели подобно грому. Коммандер посмотрел на вышедший из строя главный генератор, на котором лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения. Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин.
Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу.
Тот огляделся вокруг, указательным пальцем разгладил усы и наконец заговорил: - Что вам нужно? - Он произносил английские слова немного в нос. - Сэр, - начал Беккер чуть громче, словно обращаясь к глуховатому человеку, - я хотел бы задать вам несколько вопросов. Старик посмотрел на него с явным недоумением.
Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта. Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов. Поскольку за техникой Третьего узла следили самым тщательным образом, она даже не рассматривала такую возможность.
Data were collected from October 4, , to June 1, , and analyzed from October 14, , to June 6,Verphelime1980 28.05.2021 at 20:31