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Jeane Kirkpatrick Dictatorships And Double Standards Pdf

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By Richard V.

Dictatorships and Double Standards: Rationalism and Reason in Politics

Kirkpatrick claimed that states in the Soviet bloc and other Communist states were totalitarian regimes , while pro- Western dictatorships were merely " authoritarian " ones. According to Kirkpatrick, totalitarian regimes were more stable and self-perpetuating than authoritarian regimes, and thus had a greater propensity to influence neighboring states. The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was particularly influential during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The Reagan administration gave varying degrees of support to several militaristic anti- Communist dictatorships, including those in Guatemala to , the Philippines to , and Argentina to , and armed the mujahideen in the Soviet—Afghan War , UNITA during the Angolan Civil War , and the Contras during the Nicaraguan Revolution as a means of toppling governments, or crushing revolutionary movements, in those countries that did not support the aims of the USA.

Kirkpatrick's tenet that totalitarian regimes are more stable than authoritarian regimes has come under criticism since the collapse of the Soviet Union in , particularly as Kirkpatrick predicted that the Soviet system would persist for decades. Totalitarian regimes also often attempt to undermine or destroy community institutions deemed ideologically tainted e. For this reason, she argues that the process of restoring democracy is easier in formerly authoritarian than in formerly totalitarian states, and that authoritarian states are more amenable to gradual reform in a democratic direction than are totalitarian states.

The doctrine, while generally applauded by conservatives, has been strongly criticized by some historians and intellectuals such as Noam Chomsky , chiefly on the grounds that it was a cloak for protecting the interests of American corporations abroad and especially in Central America.

He suggests that for this reason the Reagan Administration actually worked to undermine democratic government in Nicaragua and to suppress democratic movements in El Salvador and Guatemala. Chomsky referred to Kirkpatrick as the "Chief sadist-in-residence of the Reagan Administration" and went on to sharply criticize what he called the "hypocrisy" of supporting brutal military regimes that showed no respect for human rights or democracy, while claiming to be protecting the region from communism.

Chomsky has also disputed another basic tenet of the doctrine by arguing that the supposed communist regimes, such as that of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, were actually more humane and democratic than the forces Kirkpatrick supported, such as the Contras.

Ted Galen Carpenter of the Cato Institute has also disputed the doctrine, noting that while Communist movements tend to depose rival authoritarians, the traditional authoritarian regimes supported by the US came to power by overthrowing democracies. He thus concludes that while Communist regimes are more difficult to eradicate, traditional autocratic regimes "pose the more lethal threat to functioning democracies. Kirkpatrick Doctrine. The Jerusalem Post.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Turning the Tide. Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press. Cato Policy Analysis No. Foreign relations of the United States. Bilateral relations. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago. Canada trade. Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan. Australia New Zealand. Samoa Tonga Tuvalu. Multilateral relations. Doctrines, policies , concepts. Australasia Australia New Zealand.

Dictatorships and Double Standards

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84 Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” Commentary (​November ): madvirgin.org​.


Kirkpatrick Doctrine

Published Written in English. Democracy takes a long time to develop. Dictatorships and double standards. Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition.

Lost your password? Please enter your username or email address. You will receive a link to create a new password via email. In the thirty-odd months since the inauguration of Jimmy Carter as President there has occurred a dramatic Soviet military buildup, matched by the stagnation of American armed forces, and a dramatic extension of Soviet influence in the Horn of Africa, Afghanistan, Southern Africa, and the Caribbean, matched by a declining American position in all these areas. The U.

It is also the title of a page book written by Kirkpatrick in

Dictatorships and Double Standards

Kirkpatrick claimed that states in the Soviet bloc and other Communist states were totalitarian regimes , while pro- Western dictatorships were merely " authoritarian " ones. According to Kirkpatrick, totalitarian regimes were more stable and self-perpetuating than authoritarian regimes, and thus had a greater propensity to influence neighboring states. The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was particularly influential during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The Reagan administration gave varying degrees of support to several militaristic anti- Communist dictatorships, including those in Guatemala to , the Philippines to , and Argentina to , and armed the mujahideen in the Soviet—Afghan War , UNITA during the Angolan Civil War , and the Contras during the Nicaraguan Revolution as a means of toppling governments, or crushing revolutionary movements, in those countries that did not support the aims of the USA. Kirkpatrick's tenet that totalitarian regimes are more stable than authoritarian regimes has come under criticism since the collapse of the Soviet Union in , particularly as Kirkpatrick predicted that the Soviet system would persist for decades.

The article in Commentary Magazine in is credited with leading directly to Kirkpatrick's becoming an adviser to Ronald Reagan and thus her appointment as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Kirkpatrick argued that by demanding rapid liberalization in traditionally autocratic countries, the Carter administration and previous administrations had delivered those countries to anti-American opposition groups that proved more repressive than the governments they overthrew. She further accused the administration of a "double standard" in that it had never applied its rhetoric on the necessity of liberalization to the affairs of Communist governments. Because the miseries of traditional life are familiar, they are bearable to ordinary people who, growing up in the society, learn to cope.

Jeane Kirkpatrick and the Great Democratic Defection

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Spoils system , also called patronage system , practice in which the political party winning an election rewards its campaign workers and other active supporters by appointment to government posts and with other favours. A change in party control of government necessarily brings new officials to high positions carrying political responsibility, but the spoils system extends personnel turnover down to routine or subordinate governmental positions. The term was in use in American politics as early as , but it was made famous in a speech made in by Senator William Marcy of New York. Arguments in favour of the spoils system defend it as a means of maintaining an active party organization by offering loyal workers occupational rewards. It also guarantees the ruling party loyal and cooperative employees. Supporters of the practice claim this results in more effective government because the appointed officeholders have a stake in helping the elected official to carry out his policies and fulfill his campaign promises.

This page is largely based on a profile compiled and published in early by Right Web as "Profile: Jeane Kirkpatrick " , RightWeb , December 12, Jeane J. Kirkpatrick , who was the first woman to serve as U. Ambassador to the United Nations , and an important intellectual leader of the neoconservative political faction, died on December 7, , aged Kirkpatrick went on to become a proponent of the post- Cold War neoconservative agenda, which emerged in the s and helped shape the preemptive and antiterror foreign policies of the George W.

The article in Commentary Magazine in is credited with leading directly to Kirkpatrick's becoming an adviser to Ronald Reagan and thus her appointment as United States Ambassador to the United Nations.

Но он так долго трудился над Цифровой крепостью, что вряд ли ему захотелось бы к ней возвращаться. Сьюзан понадобилось некоторое время, чтобы все это осмыслить. Она вдруг поняла стремление коммандера к необычайной секретности в шифровалке.

 - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.

Три… три… три… 238 минус 235. Разница равна трем. Он медленно потянул к себе микрофон. В то же самое мгновение Сьюзан опять бросила взгляд на руку Танкадо, на этот раз посмотрев не на кольцо… не на гравировку на золоте, а на… его пальцы.

Challenging the myth of moral equivalence

Нуматака закрыл трубку ладонью и громко засмеялся. Однако он не смог удержаться от вопроса: - Сколько же вы хотите за оба экземпляра. - Двадцать миллионов американских долларов. Почти столько же поставил Нуматака.

 - Здесь мы в безопасности. Нам нужно поговорить. Если Грег Хейл ворвется… - Он не закончил фразу.

Jeane J. Kirkpatrick

1 Comments

Octave T. 19.05.2021 at 03:32

Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, Dictatorships & Double Standards, When she published this essay, Jeane Kirkpatrick was a professor at Georgetown University​. It.

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