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Theories And Constructs Of Race Pdf

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Andrew Sullivan and Freddie Deboer have two pieces up worth checking out. I disagree with Andrew's though I detect some movement in his position. The problem with people who argue for inherent racial inferiority is not that they lie about the results of IQ tests, but that they are credulous about those tests and others like them when they shouldn't be; that they misunderstand the implications of what those tests would indicate even if they were credible; and that they fail to find the moral, analytic, and political response to questions of race and intelligence.

What We Mean When We Say 'Race Is a Social Construct'

Andrew Sullivan and Freddie Deboer have two pieces up worth checking out. I disagree with Andrew's though I detect some movement in his position. The problem with people who argue for inherent racial inferiority is not that they lie about the results of IQ tests, but that they are credulous about those tests and others like them when they shouldn't be; that they misunderstand the implications of what those tests would indicate even if they were credible; and that they fail to find the moral, analytic, and political response to questions of race and intelligence.

I think this is a good point, but I want to expand it. Most of the honest writing I've seen on "race and intelligence" focuses on critiquing the idea of "intelligence.

As Freddie mentions here , I had a mathematician stop past to tell me I needed to stop studying French, and immediately start studying statistics -- otherwise I can't possibly understand this debate.

It's a fair critique. My response is that he should stop studying math and start studying history. I am not being flip or coy.

If you tell me that you plan to study "race and intelligence" then it is only fair that I ask you, "What do you mean by race?

If you're a math guy, perhaps your instinct is to point out the problems in the interpretation of the data. The history bears this out. In , Ralph Waldo Emerson delineated the significance of race :. It is race, is it not, that puts the hundred millions of India under the dominion of a remote island in the north of Europe.

Race avails much, if that be true, which is alleged, that all Celts are Catholics, and all Saxons are Protestants; that Celts love unity of power, and Saxons the representative principle. Race is a controlling influence in the Jew, who, for two millenniums, under every climate, has preserved the same character and employments.

Race in the negro is of appalling importance. The French in Canada, cut off from all intercourse with the parent people, have held their national traits. I chanced to read Tacitus "on the Manners of the Germans," not long since, in Missouri, and the heart of Illinois, and I found abundant points of resemblance between the Germans of the Hercynian forest, and our Hoosiers, Suckers, and Badgers of the American woods.

The inhabitants of the United States, especially of the Northern portion, are descended from the people of England and have inherited the trais of their national character It is common with the Franks to break their faith and laugh at it The race of Franks is faithless. Emerson was not alone, as historian James McPherson points out, Southerners not only thought of themselves as a race separate from blacks, but as a race apart from Northern whites :.

The South's leading writer on political economy, James B. As the lower-South states seceded one after another during the winter of , this influential journal carried several long articles justifying secession on the grounds of irreconcilable ethnic differences between Southern and Northern whites. Similarly, in William Z. Ripley wrote The Races of Europe , which sought to delineate racial difference through head-type:.

The shape of the human head by which we mean the general proportions of length, breadth, and height, irrespective of the " bumps " of the phrenologist is one of the best available tests of race known.

Its value is, at the same time, but imperfectly appreciated beyond the inner circle of professional anthropology. Yet it is so simple a phenomenon, both in principle and in practical application, that it may readily be of use to the traveller and the not too superficial observer of men. To be sure, widespread and constant peculiarities of head form are less noticeable in America, because of the extreme variability of our population, compounded as it is of all the races of Europe; they seem also to be less fundamental among the American aborigines.

But in the Old World the observant traveller may with a little attention often detect the racial affinity of a people by this means. Two years later, Edward A. Ross sought to apprehend " The Causes of Race Superiority. It is certain that races differ in their attitude toward past and future. Lapie has drawn a contrast between the Arab and the Jew. The Arab remembers; he is mindful of past favors and past injuries. He harbors his vengeance and cherishes his gratitude. He accepts everything on the authority of tradition, loves the ways of his ancestors, forms strong local attachments, and migrates little.

The Jew, on the other hand, turns his face toward the future. He is thrifty and always ready for a good stroke of business, will, indeed, join with his worst enemy if it pays. He is calculating, enterprising, migrant and ambitious. You can see more of this here.

Our notion of what constitutes "white" and what constitutes "black" is a product of social context. It is utterly impossible to look at the delineation of a "Southern race" and not see the Civil War, the creation of an "Irish race" and not think of Cromwell's ethnic cleansing, the creation of a "Jewish race" and not see anti-Semitism. There is no fixed sense of "whiteness" or "blackness," not even today. It is quite common for whites to point out that Barack Obama isn't really "black" but "half-white.

When the liberal says "race is a social construct," he is not being a soft-headed dolt; he is speaking an historical truth. We do not go around testing the "Irish race" for intelligence or the "Southern race" for "hot-headedness. It is no more legitimate to ask "Is the black race dumber than then white race? The strongest argument for "race" is that people who trace their ancestry back to Europe, and people who trace most of their ancestry back to sub-Saharan Africa, and people who trace most of their ancestry back to Asia, and people who trace their ancestry back to the early Americas, lived isolated from each other for long periods and have evolved different physical traits curly hair, lighter skin, etc.

But this theoretical definition already fuzzy wilts under human agency, in a real world where Kevin Garnett, Harold Ford, and Halle Berry all check "black" on the census. Same deal for "Hispanic. And an American-centered social construct. Are the Ainu of Japan a race?

Should we delineate darker South Asians from lighter South Asians on the basis of race? Did the Japanese who invaded China consider the Chinese the same "race? Andrew writes that liberals should stop saying "truly stupid things like race has no biological element. Race is no more dependent on skin color today than it was on "Frankishness" in Emerson's day. Over history of race has taken geography, language, and vague impressions as its basis. Race does not need biology.

Race only requires some good guys with big guns looking for a reason. Skip to content Site Navigation The Atlantic. Popular Latest. The Atlantic Crossword. The One Area Where the U. In , Ralph Waldo Emerson delineated the significance of race : It is race, is it not, that puts the hundred millions of India under the dominion of a remote island in the north of Europe.

Indeed, Emerson in , saw race as central to American greatness: The inhabitants of the United States, especially of the Northern portion, are descended from the people of England and have inherited the trais of their national character Emerson was not alone, as historian James McPherson points out, Southerners not only thought of themselves as a race separate from blacks, but as a race apart from Northern whites : The South's leading writer on political economy, James B.

Ripley wrote The Races of Europe , which sought to delineate racial difference through head-type: The shape of the human head by which we mean the general proportions of length, breadth, and height, irrespective of the " bumps " of the phrenologist is one of the best available tests of race known.

He is calculating, enterprising, migrant and ambitious You can see more of this here.

Why Social Constructs Are Created

The problem of interracial relations derives from the problem of the perception of the concept of race which is often perceived in the wrong way and implies the existence of the inequality between representatives of different racial groups. However, Linda Holtzman and Leon Sharpe, in their article Theories and Constructs of Race reveal the fact that the concept of race is a social construct which has little to do with the real life. The researchers suggest that the development of the concept of race occurred under the impact of the historical development of society, economic disparities, socio-cultural norms and beliefs, and media which ultimately shaped the concept of race and contributed to the formation of the concept of white supremacy and the inferiority of the non-white population to the extent, that there was even the problem of the inferiority among the non-white population since non-white Americans often believe that they are a priori in ad disadvantaged position compared to white Americans because of their race. The thesis statement of the article is: While race itself is fiction, the consequences of racism are a historical and contemporary fact of American life. In such a way, the authors place emphasis on the social construct of the concept of race and argue that racism emerge in the US on the ground of historical and cultural influences build up on the ground of the fictional concept of race. The belongingness to certain racial group was an important attribute which though was artificially created by society to explain social inequality and historically existing disparities within the US society.

What We Mean When We Say 'Race Is a Social Construct'

Critical race theory CRT , the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour. The launch of the CRT movement marked its separation from critical legal studies CLS , an offshoot of critical theory that examined how the law and legal institutions function to perpetuate oppression and exploitation. However, instead of drawing theories of social organization and individual behaviour from continental European thinkers such as G.

This questioning gained momentum in the s during the U. They thus came to believe that race itself is a social construct, a concept that was believed to correspond to an objective reality but which was believed in because of its social functions. Craig Venter and Francis Collins of the National Institute of Health jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome in

Critical race theory

Social Constructions of Race

A social construct is something that exists not in objective reality, but as a result of human interaction. It exists because humans agree that it exists. Some examples of social constructs are countries and money. It is easier to see how countries could be social constructs than it is to see how money is a social construct. Countries would not exist were it not for human interaction.

Science appears to have focused on the concept of race among human beings through the work of the biological taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus who, in , classified human beings into four categories based upon their skin color: red, yellow, white, and black Ehrlich and Feldman, Linnaeus further distinguished between the races based upon an amalgam of characteristics that he believed were associated with each. Whites, for instance, were said to be innovative, in contrast to blacks, who were deemed to be lazy and careless. Other scholars have credited Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, who in divided mankind into Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malayan races, for the emergence of racial classification in western Europe and the United States Sanjek, Regardless of who deserves such credit, from thenceforth, race would be associated with ascribed mental and moral traits. Unable to display preview.

We can examine issues of race and ethnicity through three major sociological perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. As you read through these theories, ask yourself which one makes the most sense and why. Do we need more than one theory to explain racism, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination? In the view of functionalism, racial and ethnic inequalities must have served an important function in order to exist as long as they have. This concept, of course, is problematic. How can racism and discrimination contribute positively to society? Nash focused his argument on the way racism is functional for the dominant group, for example, suggesting that racism morally justifies a racially unequal society.

Critical race theory

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Беккер понимал, что в больнице не захотят назвать имя и адрес больного незнакомому человеку, но он хорошо подготовился к разговору. В трубке раздались длинные гудки. Беккер решил, что трубку поднимут на пятый гудок, однако ее подняли на девятнадцатый. - Городская больница, - буркнула зачумленная секретарша.

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Why Social Constructs Are Created

Смерть ее веры в .

 И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн. - Вы правы, сэр. Но он не искал глазами убийцу. Жертва всегда ищет глазами убийцу.

Он просиял. - Второй раз за один вечер. Что подумают люди.

Сьюзан молила Бога, чтобы Хейл по-прежнему был там, на полу, катаясь от боли, как побитая собака. Других слов для него у нее не. Стратмор оторвался от перил и переложил пистолет в правую руку.

“Theories & Constructs of Race” Article Review

Сьюзан высвободилась из рук обмякшего Хейла, не понимая, что произошло. Стратмор подхватил ее и слегка обнял, пытаясь успокоить. - Ш-ш-ш, - утешал он.  - Это. Теперь все в порядке.

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Раздался телефонный звонок. Директор резко обернулся.

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Это был Дэвид, кто же. Без воска… Этот шифр она еще не разгадала. Что-то шевельнулось в углу.

2 Comments

Wayne B. 19.05.2021 at 21:50

pdf. O'Neil, Moira. Invisible Structures of Opportunity: How Media Depictions of. Race Trivialize Issues of Diversity and Disparity. Washington.

Aimee P. 23.05.2021 at 00:58

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