File Name: william safran diasporas in modern societies myths of homeland and return .zip
Marsala, Italy, September 18, This is not surprising, given the incessant movement of peoples from one country, region, or continent to another for a variety of reasons: economic, political, social, and cultural. Minority populations were once referred to as refugees, immigrants, expatriates, asylum seekers, or guest workers; these categorizations seemed to be sufficient, for how else could one explain the fact that most specialists on nationalism, ethnicity, and even migration did not deal with diaspora as a distinct category or mention it at all, at least until very recently.
Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as colonialism , trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland.
Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, keeping ties back home country of origin relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host countries. Diasporas often maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. In , according to the United Nations with Its use began to develop from this original sense when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek;  the first mention of a diaspora created as a result of exile is found in the Septuagint , first in.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online , the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language was in referring "extensive diaspora work as it is termed of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent". In English, capitalized, and without modifiers that is simply, the Diaspora , the term refers specifically to the Jewish diaspora in the context of Judaism.
In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement. The population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, and usually, its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers [ who? In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement.
Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions, language, and other factors. The last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to language change and in the maintenance of traditional religious practice. William Safran in an article published in ,  set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. These included criteria that the group maintains a myth or collective memory of their homeland; they regard their ancestral homeland as their true home, to which they will eventually return; being committed to the restoration or maintenance of that homeland, and they relate "personally or vicariously" to the homeland to a point where it shapes their identity.
Rogers Brubaker also notes that the use of the term diaspora has been widening. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space". The majority of works in the s were also about the Jewish diaspora, but in only two out of 20 books sampled out of a total of were about the Jewish case, with a total of eight different diasporas covered.
Most early discussions of the diaspora were firmly rooted in a conceptual 'homeland'; they were concerned with a paradigmatic case, or a small number of core cases.
The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case. Brubaker argues that the initial expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian and Greek diasporas. More recently, it has been applied to emigrant groups that continue their involvement in their homeland from overseas, such as the category of long-distance nationalists identified by Benedict Anderson.
Furthermore, "labor migrants who maintain to some degree emotional and social ties with a homeland" have also been described as diasporas. In further cases of the use of the term, "the reference to the conceptual homeland — to the 'classical' diasporas — has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether". Here, Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic categories Some observers have labeled evacuation from New Orleans and the Gulf Coast in the wake of Hurricane Katrina the New Orleans diaspora , since a significant number of evacuees have not been able to return, yet maintain aspirations to do so.
Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can also be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland. While corporate diaspora seems to avoid or contradict connotations of violence, coercion, and unnatural uprooting historically associated with the notion of diaspora, its scholarly use may heuristically describe the ways in which corporations function alongside diasporas. In this way, corporate diaspora might foreground the racial histories of diasporic formations without losing sight of the cultural logic of late capitalism in which corporations orchestrate the transnational circulation of people, images, ideologies and capital.
One of the largest diasporas of modern times is that of sub-Saharan Africans , which dates back several centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade , 9. Prior to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, millions of Africans had moved and settled as merchants, seamen, and slaves in different parts of Europe and Asia. From the 8th through the 19th centuries, an Arab-controlled slave trade dispersed millions of Africans to Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean. Currently, migrant [ vague ] Africans can only enter thirteen African countries without advanced visas.
In pursuing a unified future, the African Union AU will [ when? The largest Asian diaspora, and in the world, is the Indian diaspora. The overseas Indian community, estimated at over It constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global community representing different regions, languages, cultures, and faiths see Desi.
The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the Jewish diaspora. With roots in the Babylonian Captivity and later migration under Hellenism , the majority of the diaspora can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion, and enslavement of the Jewish population of Judea ,  whose descendants became the Ashkenazim , Sephardim , and Mizrahim of today,   roughly numbering 15 million of which 8 million still live in the diaspora,  though the number was much higher before Zionist immigration to what is now Israel and the murder of 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
Chinese emigration also known as the Chinese Diaspora; see also Overseas Chinese  first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass emigration that occurred from the 19th century to was caused mainly by wars and starvation in mainland China , as well as political corruption.
At least three waves of Nepalese diaspora can be identified. The earliest wave dates back to hundreds of years as early marriage and high birthrates propelled Hindu settlement eastward across Nepal, then into Sikkim and Bhutan.
A backlash developed in the s as Bhutan's political elites realized that Bhutanese Buddhists were at risk of becoming a minority in their own country. At least 60, ethnic Nepalese from Bhutan have been resettled in the United States. The third wave began in the s as land shortages intensified and the pool of educated labor greatly exceeded job openings in Nepal.
Current estimates of the number of Nepalese living outside Nepal range well up into the millions. In Siam , regional power struggles among several kingdoms in the region led to a large diaspora of ethnic Lao between the s—s by Siamese rulers to settle large areas of the Siamese kingdom's northeast region, where Lao ethnicity is still a major factor in During this period, Siam decimated the Lao capital, capturing, torturing, and killing the Lao king Anuwongse.
European history contains numerous diaspora-like events. In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city-states in Magna Graecia Sicily , southern Italy , northern Libya , eastern Spain , the south of France , and the Black Sea coasts.
Greeks founded more than colonies. Alexander the Great 's the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period , characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa , with Greek ruling-classes established in Egypt , southwest Asia and northwest India.
The Migration-Period relocations, which included several phases, are just one set of many in history. The second phase, between CE and , saw Slavic , Turkic , and other tribes on the move, resettling in Eastern Europe and gradually leaving it predominantly Slavic, and affecting Anatolia and the Caucasus as the first Turkic tribes Avars , Huns , Khazars , Pechenegs , as well as Bulgars , and possibly Magyars arrived.
The last phase of the migrations saw the coming of the Hungarian Magyars. The recent application of the word "diaspora" to the Viking lexicon highlights their cultural profile distinct from their predatory reputation in the regions they settled, especially in the North Atlantic. Such colonizing migrations cannot be considered indefinitely as diasporas; over very long periods, eventually, the migrants assimilate into the settled area so completely that it becomes their new mental homeland.
Thus the modern Magyars of Hungary do not feel that they belong in the Western Siberia that the Hungarian Magyars left 12 centuries ago; and the English descendants of the Angles , Saxons and Jutes do not yearn to reoccupy the plains of Northwest Germany.
In a Spanish-financed expedition headed by Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas , after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded. Historian James Axtell estimates that , people left Europe for the Americas in the 16th century. In the 19th century alone over 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America.
The size of the Irish diaspora is demonstrated by the number of people around the world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to million. In the United States of America, approximately 4. In the People's Republic of China , millions of migrant workers have sought greater opportunity in the country's booming coastal metropolises, [ when? Much of Siberia 's population has its origins in internal migration — voluntary or otherwise — from European Russia since the 16th century.
The twentieth century saw huge population movements. Some involved large-scale transfers of people by government action. Some migrations occurred to avoid conflict and warfare. Other diasporas formed as a consequence of political developments, such as the end of colonialism. As World War II unfolded, Nazi German authorities deported and killed millions of Jews; they also enslaved or murdered millions of other people, including Ukrainians , Russians and other Slavs.
Some Jews fled from persecution to unoccupied parts of western Europe or to the Americas before borders closed. Later, other eastern European refugees moved west, away from Soviet expansion  and from the Iron Curtain regimes established as World War II ended. Hundreds of thousands of these anti-Soviet political refugees and displaced persons ended up in western Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States of America. After World War II, the Soviet Union and Communist -controlled Poland , Czechoslovakia , Hungary and Yugoslavia expelled millions of ethnic Germans , most them descendants of immigrants who had settled in those areas centuries previously.
This was allegedly in reaction to German Nazi invasions and to pan-German attempts at annexation. Spain sent [ citation needed ] many political activists into exile during the rule of Franco 's military regime from to his death in The Israeli War of Independence likewise saw several hundred thousand [ quantify ] Jews expelled from the West Bank ,  and at least , Palestinians expelled or forced to flee from the newly forming Israel.
The Partition in the Indian subcontinent resulted in the migration of millions of people between India , Pakistan and present-day Bangladesh. Many were murdered in the religious violence of the period, with estimates of fatalities up to 2 million people. From the late 19th century, and formally from , Japan made Korea a Japanese colony.
During and after the Cold War -era, huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from then- developing countries. Upheaval in the Middle East and Central Asia, some of which related to power struggles between the United States and the Soviet Union , produced new refugee populations that developed into global diasporas. Later, 30, French colons from Cambodia were displaced after being expelled by the Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot.
In Southwest China , many Tibetan people emigrated to India, following the 14th Dalai Lama after the failure of his Tibetan uprising. This wave lasted until the s, and another wave followed when Tibet opened up to trade and tourism in the s. It is estimated [ by whom? In lieu of lost citizenship papers, the Central Tibetan Administration offers Green Book identity documents to Tibetan refugees. Sri Lankan Tamils have historically migrated to find work, notably during the British colonial period The Afghan diaspora resulted from the invasion of Afghanistan by the former Soviet Union; both official and unofficial records [ citation needed ] indicate that the war displaced over 6 million people, resulting in the creation of the second-largest refugee population worldwide as of [update] 2.
In Africa , a new series of diasporas formed following the end of colonial rule. In some cases, as countries became independent, numerous minority descendants of Europeans emigrated; others stayed in the lands which had been family homes for generations.
Uganda expelled 80, South Asians in and took over their businesses and properties. In Latin America , following the Cuban Revolution and the introduction of communism , over a million people have left Cuba.
A new Jamaican diaspora formed around the start of the 21st century.
William Safran 7 Estimated H-index: 7. Find in Lib. Add to Collection. References 23 Citations Cite. The Location of Culture.
Access options available:. Minorities, Aliens, and Diasporas: The Conceptual Problem In most scholarly discussions of ethnic communities, immigrants, and aliens, and in most treatments of relationships between minorities and majorities, little if any attention has been devoted to diasporas. In the most widely read books on nationalism and ethnonationalism,1 the phenomenon is not considered worthy ofdiscussion, let alone index entries. This omission is not surprising, for through the ages, the Diaspora had a very specific meaning: the exile of the Jews from their historic homeland and their dispersion throughout many lands, signifying as well the oppression and moral degradation implied by that dispersion. But a unique phenomenon is not very useful for social scientists attempting to make generalizations. Today, "diaspora" and, more specifically, "diaspora community" seem increasingly to be used as metaphoric designations for several categories of people— expatriates, expellees, political refugees, alien residents, immigrants, and ethnic and racial minorities tout court—in much the same way that "ghetto " has come to designate all kinds of crowded, constricted, and disprivileged urban environments, and "holocaust" has come to be applied to all kinds of mass murder. Basing their studies on a fairly broad working definition of diaspora such as that of Walker Connor, "that segment of a people living outside the homeland" 16 , scholars have applied the term to Cubans and Mexicans in the United States, Pakistanis in Britain, Maghrebis in France, Turks in Germany, Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, Greek and Polish minorities , Palestinian Arabs, blacks in North America and the Caribbean, Indians and Armenians in various countries, Corsicans in Marseilles, and even Flemish-speaking Belgians living in communal enclaves in Wallonia.
PDF | William Safran is professor of political science and director of the Center for Comparative Politics at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
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The quest for a definition of diaspora seems an impossible task because of the plurality of historical experiences, trajectories and agendas. However, it became evident that producing a definition based on the memories of one diasporic community the Jewish experience and thus, turning it into a paradigm, could be less fruitful than one could imagine. This essay will focus on ethnographic experience in the Greek communities of Georgia and how they apprehend the term diaspora and when the latter becomes relevant to their lives and why. The conference attracted a surprisingly large number of participants working on different aspects of migration.
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Minorities, Aliens, and Diasporas: The Conceptual Problem In most scholarly discussions of ethnic communities, immigrants, and aliens, and in most treatments of relationships between minorities and majorities, little if any attention has been devoted to diasporas. In the most widely read books on nationalism and ethnonationalism,1 the phenomenon is not considered worthy ofdiscussion, let alone index entries. This omission is not surprising, for through the ages, the Diaspora had a very specific meaning: the exile of the Jews from their historic homeland and their dispersion throughout many lands, signifying as well the oppression and moral degradation implied by that dispersion. But a unique phenomenon is not very useful for social scientists attempting to make generalizations.
Quick jump to page content. Toggle navigation. Full article PDF. Keywords: diaspora, identity, India. Abstract Diaspora, a term used to refer to the dispersal of Jewish people across the world, is now expanded to describe any deterritorialized or transnational population that lives in a land different from that of its origin and whose social, political and economic networks span the globe crossing national borders. Through comparing the Anglo-Indian, the Sikh and the IITian diasporas, this project proposes to deconstruct diaspora as a construct.
SINTA 2. Silakan unduh di sini. View My Stats. This paper aims to understand how is the globalization of migration and the role of the diaspora to their country of origin. Though it has remained largely untested, it is commonly assumed that international migration has accelerated as part of globalization processes. The broad trend of the globalization of migration assumes to be one of contributing factor to establishment and engagement of diaspora. Globalization of Migration measured by an increase in stock and widening in geographical scope of international migration may occur mainly due revolution of information, communication, and transportation that have significantly reduced the cost of migration.
Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return. William Safran. Diaspora: A Basing their studies on a fairly broad working definition of diaspora such the form of general political support and remittances that are sent to Al-.
Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as colonialism , trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, keeping ties back home country of origin relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host countries. Diasporas often maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. In , according to the United Nations with
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