File Name: dictionary of ecology and environment .zip
The term 'environment' is widely used and has a broad range of definitions, meanings and interpretations. What does the term 'environment' mean? In popular usage, for some people, the term 'environment' means, simply, 'nature': in other words, the natural landscape together with all of its non-human features, characteristics and processes. To those people, the environment is often closely related to notions of wilderness and of pristine landscapes that have not been influenced - or, at least, that have been imperceptibly influenced - by human activities.
However, for other people, the term 'environment' includes human elements to some extent. Many people would regard agricultural and pastoral landscapes as being part of the environment, whilst others are yet more inclusive and regard all elements of the earth's surface - including urban areas - as constituting the environment. Thus, in popular usage, the notion of the 'environment' is associated with diverse images and is bound up with various assumptions and beliefs that are often unspoken - yet may be strongly held.
All of these usages, however, have a central underlying assumption: that the 'environment' exists in some kind of relation to humans. Hence the environment is, variously, the 'backdrop' to the unfolding narrative of human history, the habitats and resources that humans exploit, the 'hinterland' that surrounds human settlements, or the 'wilderness' that humans have not yet domesticated or dominated. In its most literal sense, 'environment' simply means 'surroundings' environs ; hence the environment of an individual, object, element or system includes all of the other entities with which it is surrounded.
However, in reality, individuals, objects, elements and systems rarely exist in isolation; instead, they tend to interact to varying extents with their surrounding entities.
Therefore, it is not particularly helpful to conceptualise the 'environment' without including in that conceptualisation some notion of relationship. Individuals, objects, elements and systems influence - and are in turn influenced by - their surroundings. Indeed, the networks of relationships that exist between different entities may, in some cases, be extensive and highly complex.
Thus the 'environment' may be regarded as a 'space' or a 'field' in which networks of relationships, interconnections and interactions between entities occur. To those who have studied the science of ecology, such a conceptualisation will be familiar, since ecologists are concerned with both the biotic living and abiotic non-living components of environmental systems - and especially with the interactions of those components. In fact, the term 'environment' is often used interchangeably with an ecological term 'ecosystem', which may be defined as a community of interacting organisms together with their physical surroundings.
The notion of interrelationship is a central one in environmental science and management, since many environmental issues have occurred because one environmental system has been disturbed or degraded - either accidentally or deliberately - as a result of changes in another. By focusing on the interactions and interrelationships between different parts of the environment, we are using language that is characteristic of a systems analysis approach - or a systems framework - and applying it to the understanding of environmental science and management.
Indeed, many environmental scientists now tend to think in terms of the whole 'earth system' and its components, subsystems and processes. In some ways, the term 'earth system' is a more useful one than 'the environment', not least because it highlights the fact that the natural world is a dynamic, complex entity with its own laws and processes, rather than being simply a passive space that is inhabited, exploited and given significance by humans.
Moreover, increasingly, scientists have acknowledged that the study of environmental science and management should ideally be interdisciplinary in nature, so that insights from many academic disciplines and scientific specialisms are available to inform the study of environmental issues. This is particularly important when it comes to understanding complex global environmental issues, such as climate change, which affect all parts of the earth system and which require expertise beyond the scope of any single academic discipline.
A further consideration is that the study of environmental science and management is, ultimately, focused on the planetary scale - since the earth system forms an integrated whole with many processes that operate globally.
This is not to say that the study of environmental issues at other scales is unimportant; indeed, the management of localised environmental issues - such as the pollution of rivers - is critically important for human communities, livelihoods and well-being, as well as for the health and integrity of ecosystems.
You should still be able to navigate through these materials but selftest questions will not work. Unit 1 The Earth System and its Components. Define the term 'environment'.
Dictionary of Ecology and Environmental madvirgin.org converted. Prof. Ecological footprint: The area of productive ecosystems outside a city that is required to.
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'environment. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year.
The term 'environment' is widely used and has a broad range of definitions, meanings and interpretations. What does the term 'environment' mean?
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This is the fourth edition of the most comprehensive and authoritative dictionary of ecology available. Written in a clear, accessible style, it contains over 6, entries on all aspects of ecology and related environmental scientific disciplines such as biogeography, genetics, soil science, geomorphology, atmospheric science, and oceanography. Coverage is wide-ranging and includes plant and animal physiology, animal behaviour, pollution, conservation, habitat management, population, evolution, environmental pollution, climatology and meteorology. It also includes many line drawings and useful appendices including estimations of population parameters, the geologic time-scale, and SI units. Fully revised, updated, and expanded, with over new entries, this new edition is invaluable to students of ecology, biology, conservation studies, environmental sciences, and professionals in related areas, as well as the general reader with an interest in the natural world. Michael Allaby, author Michael Allaby has written many books on environmental science, including the Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate and the Climate Handbook. All Rights Reserved.
Air is made up of a number of gases, mostly nitrogen and oxygen and, in smaller amounts, water vapour, carbon dioxide and argon and other trace gases. Air pollution occurs when harmful chemicals and particles are emitted to the air — due to human activity or natural forces — at a concentration that interferes with human health or welfare or that harms the environment in other ways. Simple rootless plants that grow in sunlit waters in proportion to the amount of available nutrients. They can affect water quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen in the water.
Девушка обвила его руками. - Это лето было такое ужасное, - говорила она, чуть не плача. - Я вам так признательна.
Некоторые ваши туристические путеводители старательно скрывают правду, обещая бесплатный ночлег в городе, но Монреаль тайме не продается. Ни за какие деньги. - Простите, сэр, вы, кажется, меня не… - Merde alors. Я отлично все понял! - Он уставил на Беккера костлявый указательный палец, и его голос загремел на всю палату. - Вы не первый.
The dictionary is designed for anyone who needs to check the meaning of an environmental or ecological term, but especially for those for whom. English is an.