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Stoichiometry And Process Calculations By Narayanan Pdf

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Stoichiometry and Process Calculations (T.L).pdf

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Please help us to share our service with your friends. Share Embed Donate. Narayanan and B. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Published by Asoke K. Contents Preface xi 1. Introduction 1—12 1. Units and Dimensions 13 —39 2.

Fundamental Concepts of Stoichiometry 40—75 3. Ideal Gases and Gas Mixtures 76 — 4. Properties of Real Gases — 5. Vapour Pressure — 6. Solutions and Phase Behaviour — 7. Humidity and Humidity Chart — 8. Material Balance in Unit Operations — 9. Material Balance with Chemical Reaction — Energy Balance: Thermophysics — Energy Balance: Thermochemistry — Chemical process industries achieve this transformation through chemical conversions and physical operations.

As the major areas of their expertise lie in the development, design, construction, operation and management of process industries, chemical engineers have to answer questions such as: What is the raw material requirement for the specified production capacity or what yield of products results from a given supply of raw materials?

If the unconverted materials are to be sent back to the processing unit, what should be the ratio of the recycled stream to the fresh feed admitted? If heat is to be supplied to the process, how many kilograms of steam would be necessary to maintain the temperature at the desired levels? How many kilojoules of heat are to be removed from the processing unit to prevent temperature from shooting up? The answers to these problems concerning the entire plant or individual units can be provided by performing process calculations involving material and energy balances.

Process calculations are also necessary to provide a variety of information such as the composition of flue gases that result from the combustion of fuels in the plant, the amount of liquid solvent to be used in an absorption column for removing undesired components from a gas stream, the rate at which air is to be sent through a dryer to reduce the moisture content of solid products before being packed for marketing, the temperature and humidity of such air, the rate of circulation of cooling water in the condenser and steam supply to the reboiler of a fractionating column, the fraction of the air to be subjected for dehumidification or the fraction to be bypassed if air of controlled humidity and temperature is desired for a certain operation in the plant and so on.

This book is intended as a textbook for undergraduate courses in chemical engineering and related disciplines such as biotechnology, polymer technology, petrochemical engineering, electrochemical engineering, environmental engineering, safety engineering and industrial chemistry. As the students at xi xii Preface this stage are not yet exposed to different unit operations and unit processes, they usually find the subject difficult due to their inability to comprehend the physical situations being analyzed in the problems.

An attempt is made in this book to introduce to the students the fundamentals of chemical engineering and the various unit operations and unit processes before problems on these topics are dealt with. The materials in this book are organized in such a way as to help the students to develop a systematic approach to making stoichiometric calculations.

A number of physical and chemical properties are required to make these calculations. These include density, heat capacity, latent heat, heat of reaction, calorific values, vapour pressure, humidity, etc. In the absence of experimental data on these properties, methods for their estimation should be known. In addition, it is essential to know the dependence of these properties on process parameters such as temperature and pressure. Other thermodynamic concepts such as the P-V-T behaviour of fluids, the phase behaviour of pure materials and solutions are also important to perform process calculations.

The first eight chapters of the book deal with these concepts in detail and provide a solid foundation for developing skills necessary for solving complex chemical engineering process problems. Material and energy balances in processes with and without chemical reactions are covered in the last four chapters. The basic philosophy of process calculations is to prepare the students to make analysis of processes through calculations and also to develop in them systematic problem-solving skills.

Through these calculations the students get equipped with fundamental information and skills that are repeatedly employed in subsequent courses as well as in professional life. With this purpose in mind, we have taken care to include a large number of exercise problems at the end of each chapter, and all of them are provided with answers.

Objective type questions provided at the end of the book help the students prepare for competitive examinations such as GATE. We are extremely thankful to our colleagues in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Government Engineering College, Thrissur for providing a helpful environment for writing this book. Suggestions and critical comments for further improvements are welcome.

Industries engaged in this transformation are known as chemical process industries. The reactions developed by the chemists in the laboratory are utilized by the chemical engineer for the commercial production of a wide variety of materials. A chemical engineer is interested more than anything else in the application of chemistry and the various branches of engineering sciences to the design, construction, operation, control and improvement of equipment for carrying out chemical processes on an industrial scale with the ultimate objective of making a profit out of the process.

Therefore, we can treat chemical engineering as a branch of engineering which deals with the application of mathematics, physics and chemistry to the manufacturing processes of modern process industries.

The official definition of chemical engineering put forward by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers is sufficiently broad to make the position clear regarding where a chemical engineer stands among other engineers and pure chemists: Chemical engineering is the application of the principles of physical sciences together with the principles of economics and human relations to fields that pertain directly to processes and process equipment in which matter is treated to effect a change of state, energy content or composition.

However, there is a wrong tendency of equating a chemical engineer with a chemist forgetting the broad scope of problems encountered by the former. For a chemical engineer his or her interest in chemistry is from the point of view of its industrial applications.

The bench scale techniques of the chemists as practised in the laboratory may be effective in making original and exploratory investigations. However, these techniques are unsuitable for large-scale production. It falls on the chemical engineer to convert the results of the laboratory 1 scale investigation to commercial production. For effecting the transformation of the raw materials to the final desired products, a large number of physical changes are also involved.

And processes involving only physical operations and which do not involve any chemical reactions such as distillation are also not uncommon in chemical engineering practice.

A typical chemist has little knowledge of the theory and practice of such operations. A chemical engineer is skilled in the development, design, construction and operation of process industries.

We refer to chemical changes here in a broad sense as they include not only chemical reactions, but also many physiochemical changes such as the separation and purification of the components of a mixture. Purely mechanical changes are usually not considered part of a chemical process, unless they are essential to later chemical changes.

For example, the manufacture of plastic polyethylene using ethylene produced from petroleum or natural gas involves a chemical process.

On the other hand, the moulding and fabrication of the resulting plastic resin into final shapes for consumer products would not be considered part of a chemical process. The huge metallurgical industry is usually distinguished from the chemical process industry because of the special nature of the processes and the vast quantity of products, but the processing of metals might also be considered to be merely a segment of the chemical process industry.

It follows that chemical engineering principles find applications in any industry which, though not producing chemicals, makes use of chemical change. Examples which suggest themselves are iron and steel production, the carbonization of coal, atomic power generation, ceramics and the pulp and paper industries. Table 1. Various uses in all areas of everyday life Cloth and clothing Windows, containers, bricks, pipes, concrete for construction of buildings, highways Household and industrial cleansing Health and medicinal applications Medicinal use, solvent, beverage Human sustenance Building material, machinery, etc.

Nuclear fuel 1. The ability to bring once scarce materials to all members of society through industrial creativity is a defining characteristic of chemical engineering.

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers has compiled a list of 10 greatest contributions of chemical engineering to improve the standard of living of modern human beings.

They are as follows: 1. The contribution of chemical engineering towards isolation of isotopes by splitting atoms revolutionized such varied areas as biology, medicine, power generation, metallurgy and archaeology. Mass production of plastics was made a viable economic reality by chemical engineers in the twentieth century that had had its positive impact on all aspects of modern life.

The concept of unit operations was extended to analyze the functioning of human body that have helped improve clinical care, diagnostic and therapeutic devices and development of artificial organs. Chemical engineers could improve the yield of antibiotics through mutation and special brewing techniques. Low priced, high-volume drugs and pharmaceuticals owe their existence to the work of chemical engineers. Introduction of synthetic fibres such as nylon, polyester, etc.

The liquefaction and subsequent separation of air into pure nitrogen and oxygen was another major contribution of chemical engineering.

Nitrogen can be used to recover petroleum, freeze food, produce semiconductors or prevent unwanted reactions while oxygen is used to make steel, smelt copper, weld metals together and for artificial respiration.

Catalytic converters, reformulated gasoline and smoke stack scrubbers and new recycling technologies are notable achievements in this area. A tremendous increase in food production was made possible by the manufacture of chemical fertilizers.

Chemical engineers today play a very vital role in food processing also. One of the greatest contributions of chemical engineering is in the area of petroleum processing and petrochemicals, which is now regarded as an enabling technology without which modern life would cease to function.

Chemical engineers have developed processes such as catalytic cracking to break down complex organic molecules found in crude oils to simpler species which serve as building blocks for the production of many useful products such as gasoline, lubricating oils, plastics, synthetic rubber, and synthetic fibres. Modern society is heavily dependent on synthetic rubber for products such as tires, gaskets, hoses, conveyor belts and shoes. Among other products of importance are insecticides, food supplements and disinfectants that are essential for raising food plants and animals.

Many building materials have been chemically processed, for example, metals, concrete, roofing materials, paints, and plastics. Clothing utilizes many synthetic fibres and dyes. Written communication uses paper and ink; and electronic communication requires many chemically processed insulators and conductors. There are many chemicals that never reach the consumer in their original form but are sold within the industry for further processing or use in the production of other chemicals for common use.

It is often said that the chemical industry is its own best customer. It can be said that even the ancient Greeks and Romans practised it when they were making soap or wine or were treating ores. However the evolution of chemical engineering as a distinct profession occurred concurrently with expansion in the chemical industry during the later half of the nineteenth century.

The political changes that took place in France and Germany during the mid nineteenth century had its impact on the industrial processes that were in practice at that time. The chemical engineering profession emerged from the need to revise these processes with an emphasis on safer and more efficient methods. Despite these developments, education in these areas was not formalized.

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Account Options Sign in. Top charts. New arrivals. Designed as a textbook for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering and related disciplines such as biotechnology, polymer technology, petrochemical engineering, electrochemical engineering, environmental engineering and safety engineering, the chief objective of the book is to prepare students to make analysis of chemical processes through calculations and to develop systematic problem-solving skills in them. The text presents the fundamentals of chemical engineering operations and processes in a simple style that helps the students to gain a thorough understanding of chemical process calculations. The book deals with the principles of stoichiometry to formulate and solve material and energy balance problems in processes with and without chemical reactions.

Answer Key Stoichiometry and Process Calculations

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STOICHIOMETRY AND PROCESS CALCULATIONS

Narayanan and B. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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Narayanan and B. Lakshmikutty by Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph orany other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Customer Care. The chief objective of this text is to prepare students to make analysis of chemical processes through calculations and also to develop in them systematic problem-solving skills. The students are introduced not only to the application of law of combining proportions to chemical reactions as the word 'stoichiometry' implies but also to formulating and solving material and energy balances in processes with and without chemical reactions. The book presents the fundamentals of chemical engineering operations and processes in an accessible style to help the students gain a thorough understanding of chemical process calculations. It also covers in detail the background materials such as units and conversions, dimensional analysis and dimensionless groups, property estimation, P-V-T behaviour of fluids, vapour pressure and phase equilibrium relationships, humidity and saturation. With the help of examples, the book explains the construction and use of reference-substance plots, equilibrium diagrams, psychrometric charts, steam tables and enthalpy composition diagrams. It also elaborates on thermophysics and thermochemistry to acquaint the students with the thermodynamic principles of energy balance calculations.

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 - Милая ночка вдвоем в Детском манеже. - Втроем, - поправила Сьюзан.  - Коммандер Стратмор у .

 - Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом. Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным. Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык.

Download 188095679-stoichiometry-and-process-calculations-k-v-narayanan-and-b-lakshmikutty.pdf

Прошу прощения за беспокойство, доброй вам но… - Espere.

 Слушай, я хотел спросить, - заговорил.  - Что ты думаешь об этом не поддающемся взлому алгоритме, который, по словам Танкадо, он хотел создать. У Сьюзан свело желудок. Она подняла голову. - Не поддающийся взлому алгоритм? - Она выдержала паузу.

В парке. Это было убийство - Ermordung.  - Беккеру нравилось это немецкое слово, означающее убийство. От него так и веяло холодом. - Ermordung.

Stoichiometry and Process Calculations

 - Червь преодолел уже половину пути. - Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф.  - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул.

Мостовая стремительно убегала назад в нескольких дюймах внизу. Он окончательно протрезвел. Ноги и плечо ныли от боли. Беккер с трудом поднялся на ноги, выпрямился и заглянул в темное нутро салона. Среди неясных силуэтов впереди он увидел три торчащие косички.

Невзламываемый шифр - математическая бессмыслица. Он это отлично знает. Стратмор провел рукой по вспотевшему лбу. - Этот шифр есть продукт нового типа шифровального алгоритма, с таким нам еще не приходилось сталкиваться. Эти слова повергли Сьюзан в еще большее смятение.

В конце концов пришлось смирить гордыню и вызвать тебя. Сьюзан это позабавило. Стратмор был блестящими программистом-криптографом, но его диапазон был ограничен работой с алгоритмами и тонкости этой не столь уж изощренной и устаревшей технологии программирования часто от него ускользали. К тому же Сьюзан написала свой маячок на новом гибридном языке, именуемом LIMBO, поэтому не приходилось удивляться, что Стратмор с ним не справился.

Фонтейн не мог понять, в чем дело, но, какими бы ни были причины ее состояния, выяснять это сейчас не было времени.

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