File Name: brassica research and production in southeast us .zip
Mississippi livestock producers looking for methods to reduce feeding costs may find forage brassicas worth exploring. Brassicas fit well with forage-based production systems by extending the grazing season into the late fall and early spring. The fall grazing of brassicas along with other production techniques, such as accumulating forage for grazing at a later time through intensive rotational stocking and stockpiling, could allow producers to rely on forage as the main source of nutrition for their livestock enterprise.
Seepaul, I. Small, M. Mulvaney, S. George, R.
Adapted from: Clark, A. Managing cover crops profitably. Note: For this article, all information from the source that does not comply with organic certification regulations has been removed.
Type: Annual usually winter or spring; summer use possible Roles: Prevent erosion, suppress weeds and soilborne pests, alleviate soil compaction and scavenge nutrients Mix with: Other brassicas or mustards, small grains or crimson clover Species: Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica juncea , Brassica hirta , Raphanus sativus , Sinapsis alba.
Nomenclature Note: The cover crops described in this article all belong to the family Brassicaceae. Most, but not all, of the species belong to the genus Brassica. In common usage, the various species are sometimes lumped together as "brassicas" and sometimes distinguished as "brassicas" vs.
Adaptation Note: This article addresses management of eight different cover crop species with varying degrees of winter hardiness. Some can be managed as winter or spring annuals. Others are best planted in late summer for cover crop use but will winter-kill.
Consult the information on management, winter hardiness and winter vs. Brassica and mustard cover crops are known for their rapid fall growth, great biomass production, and nutrient scavenging ability. However, they are attracting renewed interest primarily because of their pest management characteristics.
Most Brassica species release chemical compounds that may be toxic to soil borne pathogens and pests, such as nematodes, fungi and some weeds. The mustards usually have higher concentrations of these chemicals. Brassicas are increasingly used as winter or rotational cover crops in vegetable and specialty crop production, such as potatoes and tree fruits. There is also growing interest in their use in row crop production, primarily for nutrient capture, nematode trapping, and biotoxic or biofumigation activity.
Some brassicas have a large taproot that can break through plow pans better than the fibrous roots of cereal cover crops or the mustards. Those brassicas that winter-kill decompose very quickly and leave a seedbed that is mellow and easy to plant in. With a number of different species to consider, you will likely find one or more that can fit your farming system.
Don't expect brassicas to eliminate your pest problems, however. They are a good tool and an excellent rotation crop, but pest management results are inconsistent.
More research is needed to further clarify the variables affecting the release and toxicity of the chemical compounds involved. Figure 1. Depending on location, planting date and soil fertility, they produce up to 8, lb. Because of their fast fall growth, brassicas are well-suited to capture soil nitrogen N remaining after crop harvest. The amount of nitrogen captured is mainly related to biomass accumulation and the amount of N available in the soil profile.
Because they immobilize less nitrogen than some cereal cover crops, much of the N taken up can become available for uptake by main crops in early to late spring.
Brassicas can root to depths of 6 feet or more, scavenging nutrients from below the rooting depth of most crops. To maximize biomass production and nutrient scavenging in the fall, brassicas must be planted earlier than winter cereal cover crops in most regions, making them more difficult to fit into grain production rotations. All brassicas have been shown to release biotoxic compounds or metabolic byproducts that exhibit broad activity against bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes, and weeds.
Brassica cover crops are often mowed and incorporated to maximize their natural fumigant potential. This is because the fumigant chemicals are produced only when individual plant cells are ruptured. Pest suppression is believed to be the result of glucosinolate degradation into biologically active sulfur containing compounds call thiocyanates Gardiner et al. To maximize pest suppression, incorporation should occur during vulnerable life-stages of the pest Williams and Weil, The biotoxic activity of brassica and mustard cover crops is low compared to the activity of commercial fumigants Smith et al.
It varies depending on species, planting date, growth stage when killed, climate, and tillage system. Be sure to consult local expertise for best results. The use of brassicas for pest management is in its infancy. Results are inconsistent from year to year and in different geographic regions. Different species and varieties contain different amounts of bioactive chemicals. Be sure to consult local expertise and begin with small test plots on your farm.
In Washington, a SARE-funded study of brassica green manures in potato cropping systems compared winter rape Brassica napus and white mustard Sinapis alba to no green manure, with and without herbicides and fungicides. In Maine, researchers have documented consistent reductions in Rhizoctonia canker and black scurf on potato following either rapeseed green manure or canola grown for grain Larkin and Griffin, ; Larkin et al.
They have also observed significant reductions in powdery scab caused by Spongospora subterranea and common scab Streptomyces scabiei following brassica green manures, especially an Indian mustard B.
In Washington state, a series of studies addressed the effect of various brassica and mustard cover crops on nematodes in potato systems Matthiessen and Kirkegaard, ; Melakeberhan et al. The Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi is a major pest in the Pacific Northwest. Brassicas must be planted earlier than winter cereal cover crops in most regions.
Rapeseed, arugula and mustard were studied as alternatives to fumigation. The brassica cover crops are usually planted in late summer August or early fall and incorporated in spring before planting mustard.
The current recommended alternative to fumigation is the use of rapeseed or mustard cover crop plus the application of MOCAP. This regimen costs about the same as fumigation prices. Several brassicas are hosts for plant parasitic nematodes and can be used as trap crops followed by an application of a synthetic nematicide.
Washington State University nematologist Ekaterini Riga has been planting arugula in the end of August and incorporating it in the end of October. Nematicides are applied two weeks after incorporation, either at a reduced rate using Telone or the full rate of Mocap and Temik.
Two years of field trials have shown that arugula in combination with synthetic nematicides reduced M. Longer crop rotations that include mustards and non-host crops are also effective for nematode management.
However, because the rotation crops are less profitable than potatoes, they are less commonly used. Not until growers better appreciate the less tangible long-term cover crop benefits of soil improvement, nutrient management, and pest suppression will such practices be more widely adopted.
In Maryland, rapeseed, forage radish, and a mustard blend did not significantly reduce incidence of soybean cyst nematode which is closely related to the sugar beet cyst nematode. The same species, when grown with rye or clover, did reduce incidence of stubby root nematode R. Weil, personal communication, Also in Maryland, in no-till corn on a sandy soil, winter-killed forage radish increased bacteria-eating nematodes, rye and rapeseed increased the proportion of fungal feeding nematodes, while nematode communities without cover crops were intermediate.
These samples, taken in November, June a month after spring cover crop kill , and August under no-till corn , suggest that the cover crops, living or dead, increased bacterial activity and may have enhanced nitrogen cycling through the food web R. Like most green manures, brassica cover crops suppress weeds in the fall with their rapid growth and canopy closure. In spring, brassica residues can inhibit small seeded annual weeds such as pigweed, shepherds purse, green foxtail, kochia, hairy nightshade, puncturevine, longspine sandbur, and barnyardgrass Munoz and Graves , although pigweed was not inhibited by yellow mustard Haramoto and Gallandt, b.
In most cases, early season weed suppression obtained with brassica cover crops must be supplemented with cultivation to avoid crop yield losses from weed competition later in the season. As a component of integrated weed management, using brassica cover crops in vegetable rotations could improve weed control Boydston and Al-Khatib, However, other short-season green manure crops including oat, crimson clover, and buckwheat similarly affected establishment Haramoto and Gallandt, In Maryland and Pennsylvania, forage radish is planted in late August and dies with the first hard frost usually December.
The living cover crop and the decomposing residues suppress winter annual weeds until April and result in a mellow, weed-free seedbed into which corn can be no-tilled without any preplant herbicides. Preliminary data show summer suppression of horseweed but not lambsquarters, pigweed, or green foxtail R. Mustard cover crops have been extremely effective at suppressing winter weeds in tillage-intensive, high-value vegetable production systems in Salinas, CA.
Mustards work well in tillage-intensive systems because they are relatively easy to incorporate into the soil prior to planting vegetables. Some brassicas forage radish, rapeseed, turnip produce large taproots that can penetrate up to 6 feet to alleviate soil compaction R.
This so-called "biodrilling" is most effective when the plants are growing at a time of year when the soil is moist and easier to penetrate. Their deep rooting also allows these crops to scavenge nutrients from deep in the soil profile. As the large tap roots decompose, they leave channels open to the surface that increase water infiltration and improve the subsequent growth and soil penetration of crop roots.
Smaller roots decompose and leave channels through the plow plan and improve the soil penetration by the roots of subsequent crops Williams and Weil, Most mustards have a fibrous root system, and rooting effects are similar to small grain cover crops in that they do not root so deeply but develop a large root mass more confined to the soil surface profile.
Two Brassica species are commonly grown as rapeseed, Brassica napus and Brassica rapa. Rapeseed that has been bred to have low concentrations of both erucic acid and glucosinolates in the seed is called canola, which is a word derived from Canadian Oil.
Annual or spring-type rapeseed belongs to the species B. Rapeseed is used as industrial oil while canola is used for a wider range of products including cooking oils and biodiesel. Besides their use as an oil crop, these species are also used for forage. If pest suppression is an objective, rapeseed should be used rather than canola since the breakdown products of glucosinolates are thought to be a principal mechanism for pest control with these cover crops.
Rapeseed has been shown to have biological activity against plant parasitic nematodes as well as weeds Haramoto and Gallandt, ; Sattell et al. Due to its rapid fall growth, rapeseed captured as much as lb. Alger, personal communication, In Oregon, aboveground biomass accumulation reached 6, lb. This makes rapeseed one of the most versatile cruciferous cover crops, because it can be used either as a spring- or summer-seeded cover crop or a fall-seeded winter cover crop.
Rapeseed grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Mustard is a name that is applied to many different botanical species, including white or yellow mustard Sinapis alba , sometimes referred to as Brassica hirta , brown or Indian mustard Brassica juncea , sometimes erroneously referred to as canola , and black mustard [ B. The glucosinolate content of most mustards is very high compared to the true Brassicas.
In the Salinas Valley, CA, mustard biomass reached 8, lb. Nitrogen content on high residual N vegetable ground reached lb. Brown and field mustard both can grow to 6 feet tall. McGuire provides more information about using mustard green manures to replace fumigants and improve infiltration in potato cropping systems.
Mustards have also been shown to suppress growth of weeds Boydston and Al-Khatib, ; Haramoto and Gallandt, ; Sattell et al.
Skip to content. Cabbage is the most widely grown and easy to grow of the cole crops. Cabbage varieties are available that mature in as little as 60 days or as much as days from transplanting. The early and mid-season varieties are generally better suited for fresh market sales where small heads of 3 to 4 lbs are desired. A number of excellent cauliflower and broccoli varieties are available which range in maturity from 55 to 95 days for cauliflower and 55 to 75 days for broccoli. Cauliflower is relatively difficult to grow compared to cabbage.
Growth, yield, and oil content of Brassica species under Brazilian tropical conditions. Brassica oilseed species are becoming increasingly popular for industrial uses, with emphasis on biodiesel. It is of importance to evaluate the yield and oil production potential of nontraditional oilseeds for use as feedstock in Brazil. In this study, growth, yield, and oil content and their correlations were determined for eight accessions of B. Significant variation was observed between B. Brassica rapa accessions flowered early, with an average cycle of 97 days, whereas B.
Adapted from: Clark, A. Managing cover crops profitably. Note: For this article, all information from the source that does not comply with organic certification regulations has been removed. Type: Annual usually winter or spring; summer use possible Roles: Prevent erosion, suppress weeds and soilborne pests, alleviate soil compaction and scavenge nutrients Mix with: Other brassicas or mustards, small grains or crimson clover Species: Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica juncea , Brassica hirta , Raphanus sativus , Sinapsis alba. Nomenclature Note: The cover crops described in this article all belong to the family Brassicaceae.
Adams, Extension Entomologist. This publication is the result of a joint effort among the seven disciplines in the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences that serve the Georgia vegetable industry. Each topic focuses on a particular aspect of production and provides information on the latest management technology for that phase of production. It is hoped that the information contained in this publication will assist growers in improving profitability. Chemical pest control recommendations are subject to change from year to year; thus, only general pest control guidelines are mentioned in this publication.
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Cabbage comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea is a leafy green, red purple , or white pale green biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage B. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being rarer. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large. As of [update] , the heaviest cabbage was Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle , but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies , as well as to multiple pests , and bacterial and fungal diseases.
Brassica napus is a leading oilseed crop throughout many parts of the world. It is well adapted to long day photoperiods, however, it does not adapt well to short day subtropical regions. Short duration B.
Brassica pp Cite as. The genus Brassica is one of 51 genera in the tribe Brassiceae belonging to the crucifer family, and is the economically most important genus within this tribe, containing 37 different species Gomez-Campo Many crop species are included in the Brassica genus, which provide edible roots, leaves, stems, buds, flowers and seed.
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