File Name: product design and process planning .zip
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There are numerous reports outlining individual islands of automation within the CIM model, with a significant effort in research papers being focused on a particular task, and much less effort devoted to integration of these manufacturing engineering and planning tasks.
Integration involves the transfer of data between applications, but also should focus on data and model integrity, distributed processing of the data, incorporation of knowledge into the planning tasks, and so on. The need for integration requires that such model is transparent between these tasks and that it is easily saved or transferred. This paper proposes such neutral data model in the form of XML model and describes its details and application in manufacturing process planning.
The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes previous work in process plan representation and modeling. Section 3 describes process planning representation object model PPRM , which includes major entities and relations between them. Section 5 explains a few scenarios of integration between feature mapping, process selection, scheduling, and FMS control using data in XML format and describes a case studies that were carried out to verify the approach.
The paper ends with conclusions and the list of references. Previous workData and knowledge representation in process planning have received significant interest in research.
An early work on a language for process specification ALPS  proposed a graphical representation for manufacturing processes and means for specifying serial, parallel, and concurrent tasks. Since then, several papers addressed knowledge representation, for example, using frames and rules  or an object-oriented data model .
Recent results are in generation of the Process Specification Language PSL  as a neutral format for the specification of process representation and exchange of different ontologies or semantics between various domains.
Work on XML , as a very flexible language that transfers both data and their description metadata prompted its widespread use in many research efforts. Lubell et al. Recent work has been in applying process representation to implement various systems.
Several papers propose agent-based approach in modeling and developing coordinated product development  and in intelligent manufacturing  or utilize web-based approach . The data representation in these approaches is usually based on the XML language. Cheung et al. The framework is implemented in collaborative product development and manufacturing system using ontology-based knowledge approach.
The system uses CAD information in STEP format and then allows a programmer to interactively specify details of stock, feature definitions, and process plan and generates XML file with program output.
Siller et al. Process planning representation and modelingManufacturing planning object model developed in this work is based on process planning object model proposed in , which described a data model for representation of process plans based on the different activities involved in manufacturing. A process planning representation model facilitates the development of algorithms for manufacturing problems like sequencing, scheduling, etc.
The model accommodates a variety of data that may be needed in manufacturing planning algorithms. Components of the model are manufacturing planning object model, feature object model, and process object model and they are described in this section. Manufacturing planning object modelManufacturing planning object model is shown in Fig. The model is based on analysis of product and process design entities and includes hierarchical representation of manufacturing activities, that has manufacturing processes as its leaves, collection of manufacturing features and corresponding manufacturing processes, and a collection of machines used in the manufacturing system.
A manufacturing activity represents the core of the model. Any activity that contributes to the manufacturing of a part is called a manufacturing activity. A manufacturing activity has attributes like manufacturing cost, manufacturing time, member processes, etc. A manufacturing activity is subdivided as a part activity, a machine activity or a tool direction activity.
A part activity describes the process plan for a part. There is an association relationship between part activity and part. Each part activity is associated with a part. A process plan for a part is a collection of the machine activities through which a part has to pass to be completely manufactured.
The part in turn can have multiple alternative process plans part activities. The machining process of a part on each machine in its process plan is represented by a machine activity.
Each machine activity is associated with a machine object. There is an aggregation relationship between part activity and machine activity. Each part activity is a collection of machine activities. The part object has attributes like a collection of its alternative process plans, part material, features list, process list, etc.
The machine object has attributes like machine name, number of units, usage frequency, etc. Each machine activity is a collection of tool direction activities. A tool direction activity holds directional information about a machining process. The member process attribute of manufacturing activity is used to store the aggregations of a manufacturing activity.
Thus, the member process attribute of a part activity holds a collection of machine activities. The member process attribute of a machine activity holds a collection of tool direction activities. The representation model for the cellular manufacturing shown in Fig. The core of the cellular manufacturing model is the manufacturing system. A manufacturing system is a place where parts are manufactured on machines.
The main task of cell formation is the partition of the parts in the system into part families and machines into machine cells to reduce intercellular traffic. The objective is to find a partition for machines into machine cells and parts into part families in such a way as to minimize intercellular traffic. Feature object modelThe feature object model represents a hierarchical representation of various machining features with inheritance relations within it.
The model is shown in Fig. The major class is MfgFeature that abstracts all common properties for all features. Properties at this level include feature name, containing part, tolerance data, list of alternative processes, and precedence relations. MfgFeature class is extended into several subclasses that correspond to machining feature types found in mechanical prismatic parts such as Hole, Slot, and Pocket. These classes model properties of particular feature type and include different dimension parameters, and tolerance requirements data.
However, model properties on general, feature level are of generic nature and can be applied by extending this model to other domains like rotational parts, sheet metal parts, and so on. Machining process object modelThe knowledge about processes is also represented in an objected-oriented model. In order to map this knowledge representation, the machining processes are categorized based on their characteristics. The class MfgProcess represents the most generic process class, i.
Further distinctions are carried out based on the process characteristics such as hole making processes and profile generating milling processes. These generalized classes are implemented as abstract classes and are shown with italicized titles in Fig. The classes under these umbrella classes are for representing the actual machining processes for example, TwistDrilling, EndMillingSlotting, or FaceMilling.
Therefore, based on the inheritance, End-MillingSlotting process acquires process information from EndMilling, which further leads to the parent class MfgProcess. The following paragraphs give a brief description about the MfgProcess and EndMillingSlotting classes, while description of other classes is part of working documentation.
MfgProcess: This class contains member variables such as feature, stock, workpiece, cutting parameters, constraints, tool, and tool path. These listed variables are used in every inherited process class as every process contains these components of machining process.
Also, this class carries the GUI components for showing process information and a graphical interface to display a process. EndMillingSlotting: This class contains method specific for milling of slots. They include method for determining process capability, setting of cutting parameters, calculation of process time, and tool path generation.
In addition, methods for visualization and animation of process are implemented in this class. It describes the XML schema, which is the basis or template for process plan data generation, provides few examples of XML data, and describes methods for writing and parsing data in XML format.
This element holds two collection elements partsList and machinesList. The partsList element is a collection of part models represented by the MfgPartModel element. The machinesList is a collection of the available machines represented by Machine element. Each MfgPartModel element has a list element called partActivityList, which is a collection of alternative process plans, for the enclosing part element.
These alternative process plans are represented as has a machineActivityList element. The machineActivityList element is a collection of all the MachineActivity elements in the enclosing process plan. Each MachineActivity element encloses a Machine element that holds information about the machine on which the machining operation is done. This element holds the spatial information about the tools used in this machining activity.
The hierarchical relationship between parts, machines, part activities, machine activities, tool activities, features, and processes is in such way incorporated into the XML document. Information on features and processes may be included in few levels of detail. For feature modeling, geometric reasoning and process selection all details are needed, so elements actually carry the name of the feature or process class, with inclusion of all details.
Example of this model for two features is shown in Fig. Feature tags are actually class names, and features have all details of their dimensions stored. Different XML elements are used when feature and process data are used in system context eg.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Advanced process planning in lean product and process development Abstract: Lean product and process development Lean PPD is an emerging paradigm wherein lean thinking is considered in the design and development of engineering products. Although lean design and lean product development have received attention in previous works, process development has received little; research in this area is necessary to improve the concurrency of product and process development.
Process Planning covers the selection of processes, equipment, tooling and the sequencing of operations required to transform a chosen raw material into a finished product. Initial chapters review materials and processes for manufacturing and are followed by chapters detailing the core activities involved in process planning, from drawing interpretation to preparing the final process plan. The concept of maximising or 'adding value' runs throughout the book and is supported with activities. Designed as a teaching and learning resource, each chapter begins with learning objectives, explores the theory behind process planning, and sets it in a 'real-life' context through the use of case studies and examples. Furthermore, the questions in the book develop the problem-solving skills of the reader. ISO standards are used throughout the book these are cross-referenced to corresponding British standards.
The process of the product design consists in a plan for the product, its components and subassemblies. To obtain the physical entity building a manufacturing plan is needed. The activity of developing such a manufacturing plan is name process planning. Process planning is the relation between design and manufacturing. Process planning consists in defining the sequence of the steps that should be taken to make the product.
In companies, planning processes can result in increased output, higher precision, and faster turnaround for vital business tasks. A process is described as a set of steps that result in a specific outcome. It converts input into output.
Manufacturing Systems: Theory and Practice pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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