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For each of the subject terms that have been chosen as an access point using indexing techniques, the bibliographic details of the document will be provided and Users who have interest in the different subject areas that have been covered will be able to locate the same documents.
Abstracting provides an added value to the document being sought, apart from providing the full bibliographic details of the documents; it will also provide a summary of the document.
Abstracting and indexing databases have been found to still be both relevant and necessary Rabe Abstracts, index entries, title listings, and other forms of document representations are highly organized and detailed guides that lead the user to the originals that the libraries are expected to furnish, In addition to acting as guides, document representations also provide the user with a means of appraising the value of the available literature, its relevance to his area of interest, and his need for the original.
Rarely do data contained in secondary publications serve as substitutes for the originals. Without surrogates, such as indexes and abstracts, search through the accumulated literature would be impossible. This chapter will consider the concept and practicalities of indexing and abstracting services in the information organizations. When the task of indexing is based on the conceptual analysis of the subject of the document , it is called Subject indexing.
According to Taylor Indexing is the process by which the content of an information resource is analyzed, and the "aboutness" of that item is determined and expressed in a concise manner. Indexing is also concerned with describing the information resource in such a way that users are aware of the basic attributes of a document, such as author, title, length, and the location of the content.
Indexing typically concerns textual items only; although image indexing is a growing area of practice. One of the functions of an information retrieval system is to match the contents of documents with user's queries. The content of each input document in a collection is to be analyzed and represented in such a way that it becomes convenient for matching.
The systems personnel have to prepare a surrogate for every document and the surrogates must be maintained in an organized manner. The technique of producing an index is called indexing. Indexing is the process of providing a guide to the intellectual content of a document or a collection of documents.
The result of this process is an index, which will serve as a pointer to the intellectual content in a document. It is able to perform this role through the descriptors that are used in describing the intellectual content of documents. The reader who is interested in a document will use the descriptors assigned to the document by the indexer. The ultimate objective of the index is to reduce the efforts a user expends in accessing a topic of interest in a particular document or a set of documents which have been stored in a collection.
An index is an important tool for retrieving information contained in documents stored in the library, documentation or information centre. It provides a means of locating the information relevant to a request.
Different researches have but Fugmann proposed a theory of indexing based on five general axioms 1 The axiom of definability proposes that compiling information relevant to a topic can only be accomplished to the degree to which a topic can be defined. The American, British and International Standards National Information Standards Organization ; International Organization for Standardization , which are largely worded the same way on this issue and express the considered judgment of experienced indexers, stipulate the following basic functions of an index: the function of an index is to provide users with an efficient and systematic means for locating documents or parts of documents that may address their information needs or requests.
This is particularly used in specialized Libraries where readers request for multiterms when information is required than single items which are generally assigned to documents.
For example a reader is interested in documents that deal with "Female Librarians in Ghana" is not only interested in the documents that deal with females or Librarians or Ghana only. This type of indexing is commonly associated with post -coordinate indexing because coordination is done at the time of searching, and it is also called manipulative indexing or computerized indexing where Boolean Logic operators are used.
This is based on the assumption that the title correctly reflects the content of the document. Thus the keywords in the title correspond to the subject terms of the document.
This type of index employs natural indexing language. It is worthy to note that that the assumption that the title correctly holds the content of the document does not necessarily hold true in the sense that some titles may not be informative enough when they do not contain information conveying words.
This is a special type of index which is very useful to readers in that it provides a summary of the subject content of a document. This type of index involves providing a link to the index in the context in which the author of the document has used the term.
There is a lead term as well as the summary of the document in the context of other index terms used in the document. The other displayed index terms are then arranged from the specific to the general. Each index has a lead term and other terms that can clearly show a summary of the document. Any of the displayed terms can also appear as the lead term. Thus access to a document is possible through any of the index terms used in the document.
There are also other papers that would have cited each citation in the list; these other papers are referred to as citing articles. It is possible therefore to list all the citing articles under each cited paper.
This is a special type of index which lists all citing articles under a cited paper that is for each article cited in the index it would list all other articles that have cited it citing articles.
Another difference is that the indexing of books in a single operation that begins and ends with one indexer. On the other hand, indexing of periodicals is a continuous project that will involve several indexers. The back of the book index usually contains important topics described in the document, names of personalities and corporate bodies and geographical names and the pages with which they are located. This index makes the topics treated in the book more accessible to the user thereby saving the stress of scanning or going through the whole book in search of a topic or issue.
In traditional back-of-the-book indexing, the index is a list of terms or terms phrases arranged alphabetically with locator references that make it possible for the user to retrieve the desire content. Language of the indexing terms is typically derived from language of the text, thus the kind of indexing done in this context is referred to as derived indexing.
In back-of-the-book indexing, there are two methods for creating multiple entry points:1 Double-posts, whereby two or more index entries of the same meaning are added to the index, with none designated as preferable to the other, and all have the same locators pointing to the same points of text. This is the preferred method when the entries do not have subentries.
This is the preferred method when the entry has subentries. Universities that are strong in research spend colossal sums of money on periodicals. More importantly, periodicals constitute the heart of academic research in universities.
The importance of periodicals in university libraries cannot therefore be overemphasized. According to Matanji , there are two types of periodical indexes. There are indexes to a single journal and indexes to several journals. Very often, the editors of most journals will issue an index at the end of the volume. This is generally an index of authors and subjects included in all the issues for a particular year.
The terms are selected form the title of each article in the journal and there is no need for controlled language. These terms are expected to be used by the searcher to search for documents in collection. There is always a need for an artificial language to be used by the indexer and the searcher to describe a document since the terms or concepts identified in a book are represented by words or phrases.
These types of indexing language have been described with their unique characteristics. Natural Indexing Language: The indexer uses the exact words and phrases used by the author of the document.
This is very easy to use by the indexer and the searcher but the major problem is that there is no discrimination between synonyms, semantics, homographs, singular and plurals.
This type of indexing tends to scatter documents on the same subject, where the authors have used different terms. The function of this type of language is to ensure that the indexer and the searcher operate at the same level by using the same language.
This is to facilitate the retrieval of relevant information from the collection of the library. This language appears in a variety of forms. In natural language indexing, any term that appears in the title, abstract or text of a document record may be an index term. There is no mechanism to control the use of terms for such indexing. Similarly, the searcher is not expected to use any controlled list of terms.
Controlled Indexing Language: The terms that are used to represent subjects are assigned to particular documents are controlled or executed by an indexer. The indexer exercises some control over the terms that are to be used as index terms because the indexer assigns only terms that have been listed as possible index terms.
There is generally a preconceived standard list of terms to be used for a particular system. There are two types of this standard list. This list is sometimes called an authority list.
The first type is the alphabetical controlled list in which the terms are arranged alphabetically. The two common examples are subject headings list and thesauri. The second type is the classification scheme which assigns notation to subject terms. The searcher is expected to consult the same controlled list during formulation of a search strategy. Some Indexers have proposed that opening paragraphs, chapters etc.
Here the text is prepared by the author in an organized manner and held together by a skeletal structure. The onus therefore lies on the indexer to identify the skeleton and markers that will determine the content of the given text. An indexer should be able to make inferences about the relationships between words and phrases by understanding the sentence structure.
It has already been mentioned that the major objective of any indexing system is to represent the contents of documents through keywords or descriptors. In post-coordinate systems, one entry is prepared for each keyword selected to represent the subject of a given document, and all the entries are organized in a file. This term serves as a lead term to the document. When a user puts forward a query, it is analyzed and some keywords are selected that are representative of the user's query.
These query terms are then matched against the file of index terms and relevant documents are retrieved.
Based on new research and years of practical experience, this guide presents the basic knowledge necessary to become a professional indexer. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. This fourth edition of Introduction to Indexing and Abstracting examines the primary tools for organizing information, addressing fundamental concepts such as. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Indexes Indexes are a list of journal articles, conference papers, theses and other references which are compiles according to specific items, for example, subject or keyword. This book is aimed at the neophyte indexer and the practitioner as a guide to the fundamentals of indexing and abstracting.
Ross wants to publish his research. He sits to draft his manuscript. After completing the abstract, he proceeds to write the introduction. He finds himself a bit confused. Do the abstract and introduction mean the same?
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The world today, as a thousand years ago has two basic needs: wealth and knowledge. The most generous, efficient and effective information manager may not be able to make available to others what does not exist. Likewise, the most gifted intellects may not be able to apply the powers of reasoning and imaginative deduction to information they do not possess. Hence as the dire need for information drives the individual so also it goads the societies. The Web and wireless technologies have indelibly altered our lives Tensen,
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What is indexing?