File Name: geothermal hvac green heating and cooling .zip
In composite climatic zone like Nagpur, Maharashtra, India several electro-mechanical cooling appliances viz. Application of geothermal cooling system is a very apt option for saving energy and reducing emission when compared to conventional cooling techniques. In the present work design methodology of geothermal cooling system is broadly elaborated and is applied to a case study of an educational building located in composite climate. The application of conventional and geothermal cooling systems is compared in terms of energy consumption.
The preponderance of this energy is utilized to building cooling. The goal of this project is to explore the feasibility of geothermal coupled cooling system in Dubai.
Ultimately it was concluded that geothermal cooling is technically feasible and economical option in Dubai. The vertical; open-loop shallow geothermal system has the most potential. This was determined by conducting multiple cost-benefit, simulation and analysis comparing three different options with current system and the possible economic costs of installation with the potential economic, and environmental benefits.
The Ground Couple Heat Pump GCHP option was compared with other cooling systems options linked to the same building and operating under similar loads and climatic conditions. All systems were fully analyzed throughout one year also a life cycle of 20 years were evaluated to see how much of an impact it will have.
However its market penetration, in particular in Middle East, is still small. In countries such as Japan, South Korea and China in which GCHP are very popular, climatic conditions are such that by far most of the demand is for space heating, whereas air conditioning is rarely required. In this sense, implementation of this technology to cooling dominated applications in hot climates is still in the early stages. The aim of this work is to gain an insight into the technical and economical viability of the GCHP technology for commercial applications in the Dubai.
In this direction, we present the performance analysis of an indirect vertical open-loop ground source heat pump system installed in Dubai, UAE operating in cooling mode. The details of various type of geothermal will not be discussed here; the interested reader is referred to Geothermal HAVC, for recent overview . In the scoop of this study three options were considered in order to establish a comparison the efficiency improvement and energy savings: 1.
Wet-cooled chillers system combined with geothermal systems. Wet-cooled chillers system combined with cooling towers. Replacement of the existing air-cooled chillers system with alternative more efficient chillers. The main objective is the development of a commercial size, economic, energy efficient and environmentally friendly, fully integrated turnkey ground source heat pump system for cooling, targeted specifically at commercial applications in the Dubai region.
Geothermal Background There is significant increase in the number of research related to GCHP, reflecting the rapidly increasing activity worldwide. This section will present several situations at different geographical areas and countries. Approximately gpm of ground water 58 o F where required for both heating and cooling. A separation distance of ft was estimated between the supply and rejection well. Leslie Johns,. A ton capacity chiller was required extracting humidity from the building.
Regie Goforth. Within weeks of the geothermal heat pump system began experiencing extremely high and totally unacceptable levels off corrosion.
The first solution was to eliminate the open holding tank that was allowing oxygen to enter the system. The second was to isolate the geothermal fluid loop from the inbuilding distribution loop. That was done through addition of plate and frame heat exchangers. The third solution design change was to add a variable speed. Edward Brendt. The system was served by three wells. The depth is estimated to be 80 use of only one well with the second in reverse except during peak demand period. A plate and frame heat exchanger separates the well from the in-feet.
The two wells provided approximately gpm of 54 o F water. Operating of the system requires the building circulation system. Water, after passing through the heat exchanger, and finally drains into a nearby stream. Toni Boyd. In this configuration, a single pipe is routed in a circular fashion with primary circulation pumps that vary flow rates with fluid temperature differentials measured at multiple points. Load and performance data are monitored and subsequently controlled via a central control system.
Also, the energy analysis of the system has been performed. The final selection of the groundwater heat pump included detailed economic analysis of the heat pump layouts with the best thermodynamics characteristic. Minges  proposed a geothermal heating and cooling system in The Exchange which located in Farmington Connecticut. A 55 o F geothermal source was provided by 4 wells. The system uses a shell and tube heat exchanger between the wells and the circulating fluid that supplies the heat pump.
All of the pumps are submersibles. The water is then disposed of into a creek at a maximum of 85 o F. At this point, maintenance is however, becoming a problem and the system reliability is coming more and more into questions. The answer is the system will definitely show its age, because usually the estimated life-time for air-cooled chiller is between years. One of the main concerns is to explore the amount of life-time and money put into the new system compared with coming maintenance problems, bearing in mind that the current system are not fitted with variable speed diver compressors.
According to the existing dewatering system at the site Fig. Thus, the motivation for conducting this project originated from an interest of increasing the efficiency at commercial buildings in Dubai city. Building Characteristics Dubai Silicon Oasis Headquarter is a commercial building strategically located in the center of Dubai silicon oasis DSO and will be a taken as an example for this study.
The integrated free zone technology park was built in This business center is one of the largest in the United Arab Emirates providing fully serviced offices, meeting rooms and virtual offices, catering for everything from a single workstation to an unlimited number of offices.
The building consist of six wings A, B, C, D, E and F each wing contain 2- basement floors - 1 ground floor - 10 typical floors On each floor, there are 9 offices in different sizes total of 82 offices in the whole building. In order to find the best solution an energy study was performed to compare three different options as mentioned before with the original air-cooled used system. Wet-Cooled Geothermal System Option The proposed wet-cooled geothermal heat pump option consists of three water-cooled ton units connected in series.
Only two of the chiller can cover the building load operating condition while the third chiller will be at the standby condition refer to Fig. This chosen configuration reduces potential scale or corrosion to one piece of equipment.
An open discharge method will be used for this option. Water will be extracted from an underlying aquifer from an open loop at Wet Cooling Tower Option The proposed Wet Cooling Tower heat pump option consists of three water cooled ton units connected in series same chillers type and model used in option1.
Each chiller consists of its own three cell cooling tower at a capacity of 1, Ton and GPM Flow rate, variable speed compressor, shell-and-tube type condenser. Highly Efficient Air-Cooled Option The proposed Air Cooled option heat pump plant consists of seven Air-cooled variable speed diver type ton units connected in series. Only six of the chiller can cover the building load operating condition while the chiller 7 will be at the standby condition refer to Fig.
The design offers a lighter, smaller and quieter package that minimizes the installed cost and maximizes usable building space. Each chiller is custom-matched to meet the individual building wings load and energy requirements which perfectly meet with chosen building strategy. Also a variety of standard heat exchangers and pass arrangements are available to provide the best possible match.
The chosen design will minimize the quantity of refrigerant used in the system. The highest portion of green house gases is carbon dioxide generated from electric power plants.
HVAC systems are one of the largest consumers of electricity in commercial buildings. Variable speed drives are provided in these chillers to ensure that these chosen air-cooled are more efficient than the existing Air-cooled chillers which discussed earlier. Estimation of investment: Economical Analysis The installation costs of the studied options are difficult to estimate with high degree of certainty without more design specifics. However, reasonable assumption was made according to the building estimated cooling loads, estimation of investment including heat pump units, heat exchangers, pumps, chillers, piping, and design fees management and other fees.
However, the chiller cost still contributes significantly to the total equipment costs. Note the amount of savings only include the cost of the chillers and doesn t include the fixture needed to support the chillers. The proposed options will use electricity as it fuel. One of the primary benefits of most geothermal heat pump option relates to the reduced operating cost, which is based mostly on the reduced energy consumption.
The systems are expected to last 20 years without replacement. Thus, it is important to look again at a years life cycle for each option. The life cycle of 20 years will be used to appropriately weigh the estimated operating costs and Energy usages Fig.
Also Fig. A life cycle of 15 years is chosen for existing system because the system has already operated for 5 years. Since the operating costs are lower, the geothermal-cooling system would clearly be the best option in Dubai. Figure 9: Payback Periods Comparison Clearly we can see that, the geothermal-cooled system will have a payback period of about years, the water-cooled Cooling Tower option will have a payback period of years, and the Air-Cooled option will have a payback period of years.
This indicates that providing the absence of funding would have a major impact on the payback period of the project, especially as the rate of return increases. Environmental Impacts One of the major impact issues with this project deals with the CO 2 production associated with the DSO energy consumption.
It is estimated that 1. Based on these relationships, Fig. Conclusion Commercial buildings in Dubai have relatively high occupancy, fluctuating demands, and widely vary cooling requirements within individual zones that are difficult to meet efficiently with conventional systems.
The selected options at this project will be successful in providing comfort conditions at reasonable first and continuing operational costs. H ellstrom,. Geother mal. June p, 11pp. Geo thermal. Indu strial and Heat pumps Case Studies,.
Senior Scientist Washington state University Gt,. Heati ng. December p, 17pp.
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There is a vast quantity of free, clean, and renewable energy in our ponds, oceans, and the waters that surround the Vineyard. Through the use of geothermal heat pumps, we can collect and concentrate this low grade stored solar energy into high grade energy to heat and cool our buildings. This energy is available 24 hours a day all year long. Because the Sun is storing this energy for free, a geothermal heat pump can typically collect 2 to 4 units of free energy for every unit of energy put into the heat pump. Because geothermal systems are 3 to 5 times more efficient than the best fossil fuel systems, their operating costs are about half. In other words, the annual cost for electricity to run a geothermal system is half the annual cost of propane or fuel oil to run a furnace or boiler. We proposed our ocean based geothermal system in November , and our pond based approach in September
Virtually pollution-free, inexhaustible, safe and efficient, geothermal energy is a truly clean means of heating and cooling that is also dependably constant. According to a report by the National Wildlife Federation, campuses in 42 states use geothermal energy for heating and cooling. Thanks to geothermal technologies like heat pumps, campuses can use the heat of the earth to:. Low Operational Costs: Geothermal energy systems have lower operating and maintenance costs than some other conventional heating systems, enabling colleges to recoup the cost of installation. Scaling: Geothermal technology may also be scaled to work in individual buildings or whole campuses.
installed what is considered the first geothermal heat pump at his residence. rooftop units with the potential for both heating and cooling, but they would only which stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is a green and Cooling Systems”.
It uses the earth all the time, without any intermittency , as a heat source in the winter or a heat sink in the summer. This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geosolar system with even greater efficiency. They are also known by other names, including geoexchange, earth-coupled, earth energy systems.
Relative to air-source heat pumps, In summer, the geothermal heat pump extracts Water source heat pump systems generally require smaller mechanical rooms than other HVAC systems. Geothermal system
Imagine a home in which the temperature is always comfortable, yet the heating and cooling system is out of sight. The air smells fresh; you can hear the birds chirping and the wind rustling lazily through the trees. The home shares energy with the earth similar to the way the roots of the trees exchange the essentials of life to their leaves and branches. Geothermal heating and cooling makes that vision a reality. Geothermal HVAC heating, ventilating, and air conditioning brings a building in harmony with the earth beneath, taking advantage of subterranean temperatures to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer.
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A heat pump is a device used to warm and sometimes also cool buildings by transferring thermal energy from a cooler space to a warmer space using the refrigeration cycle , being the opposite direction in which heat transfer would take place without the application of external power. Common device types include air source heat pumps , ground source heat pumps , water source heat pumps and exhaust air heat pumps. Heat pumps are also often used in district heating systems. The higher the number, the more efficient a heat pump is and the less energy it consumes. When used for space heating these devices are typical much more energy efficient than simple electrical resistance heaters. There are millions of domestic installations using air source heat pumps.
I have been passionate about geothermal air-conditioning for 20 years because it is renewable, sustainable, and comfortable. And now with new federal incentives in the United States, I am glad to say that I can add a fourth watchword: doable. Even so, my favorite word of the four is sustainable. You see, I grew up as the oldest of nine children on a nine-acre ranch in the high desert of California. We had a shared party line for the phone and no cable TV.
Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials in currently uncertain  but possibly roughly equal  proportions. Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. With water from hot springs , geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation.
The preponderance of this energy is utilized to building cooling. The goal of this project is to explore the feasibility of geothermal coupled cooling system in Dubai. Ultimately it was concluded that geothermal cooling is technically feasible and economical option in Dubai. The vertical; open-loop shallow geothermal system has the most potential. This was determined by conducting multiple cost-benefit, simulation and analysis comparing three different options with current system and the possible economic costs of installation with the potential economic, and environmental benefits.
Energy geostructures are a modern application of low enthalpy geothermal systems i. The principle consists in setting up a network of pipes inside the reinforcement cages inside the concrete structures. A heat transfer fluid, which circulates in the pipe network, exchanges heat with the ground through the concrete.
И в первую очередь я искренне сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере. Простите. Я был ослеплен своими амбициями.
Где-то неподалеку зазвонил колокол. Беккер молча ждал выстрела, который должен оборвать его жизнь. ГЛАВА 89 Лучи утреннего солнца едва успели коснуться крыш Севильи и лабиринта узких улочек под. Колокола на башне Гиральда созывали людей на утреннюю мессу. Этой минуты ждали все жители города.
Как пасхальное яйцо. - Я сказал, что ты занял мое место. - Впервые тебя вижу, - сказал Беккер вставая. Не хватало еще ввязаться в драку.
И с успехом его выдержал. Ненависть в его сердце уступила место преданности Будде. Еще через четыре месяца Энсей Танкадо приступил к работе в Отделении криптографии Агентства национальной безопасности США. Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим.
Сьюзан положила руку на мышку и вывела окно состояния Следопыта. Сколько времени он уже занят поиском. Открылось окно - такие же цифровые часы, как на ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, которые должны были показывать часы и минуты работы Следопыта. Однако вместо этого Сьюзан увидела нечто совершенно иное, от чего кровь застыла в жилах. СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТКЛЮЧЕН Следопыт отключен.
И при этом подбрасывает подсказки, которые нелегко распознать. - Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба. - Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Такая возможность. Последний шанс.
На ступенях прямо перед Халохотом сверкнул какой-то металлический предмет. Он вылетел из-за поворота на уровне лодыжек подобно рапире фехтовальщика. Халохот попробовал отклониться влево, но не успел и со всей силы ударился об него голенью. В попытке сохранить равновесие он резко выбросил руки в стороны, но они ухватились за пустоту.
Geothermal HVAC: Green Heating and Cooling covers the fast-growing field of geothermal air conditioning and heating technology and all of its peripherals, in.