File Name: fatigue in sport and exercise .zip
IJSEM is a database for physicians, physical therapists, sports trainers, orthopedic surgeons specialized in exercise medicine. It focuses on the health-and-fitness information, psychology, sports nutrition, causes and effects of damage caused by athletic injury, its medication and rehabilitation.
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise. It is one of the allied health professions that involves the study of the acute responses and chronic adaptations to exercise. Understanding the effect of exercise involves studying specific changes in muscular , cardiovascular , and neuro humoral systems that lead to changes in functional capacity and strength due to endurance training or strength training.
This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Aerobics injuries are usually caused by trauma and overuse, but can be prevented by using the right techniques and equipment. When returning to a flood-affected area, remember that wild animals, including rats, mice, snakes or spiders, may be trapped in your home, shed or garden. When returning to your home after a flood, take precautions to reduce the possibility of injury, illness or disease.
Children should always be closely supervised near animals and taught how to behave safely around pets. Exercise can reduce some of the symptoms of arthritis, and improve joint mobility and strength. Content on this website is provided for information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.
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Keeping active. Home Keeping active. Exercise safety. Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this page. Exercise safety advice Exercises that could be harmful Stretching and exercise safety Water consumption and exercise safety Exercise safety in hot weather Exercise safety in cold weather Exercise safety and your equipment Where to get help Things to remember.
Regular physical activity is vital for good physical, social and emotional health. While there is a risk of injury with any type of physical activity, the benefits of staying active far outweigh the risks.
You can reduce your risk of exercise injury by: wearing the right shoes using the correct equipment drinking lots of water warming up and stretching properly. Exercise safety advice You can obtain information and advice about exercise safety from your doctor, a sports medicine doctor, physiotherapist or an exercise physiologist — or see a sporting association about correct sporting technique and equipment.
Guidelines for exercise safety Some guidelines for general exercise safety include: Use pre-exercise screening to identify whether you are at a higher risk of experiencing a health problem during physical activity. Ensure you read through pre-exercise self-screening tool before you embark on a physical activity or exercise program.
When deciding if any exercise is safe, you need to consider the technique used as well as your individual condition, such as injury history and fitness level. Be guided by a qualified fitness instructor. If you have a pre-existing injury or medical condition, consult a sports medicine doctor, exercise physiologist or physiotherapist.
There are many changes during pregnancy, such as changes in body shape and size, that pose potential risk of increased injury. It is essential that all pregnant women discuss their exercise plans with their doctor, as each pregnancy is different. Be aware that increasing the speed of any exercise can increase the risk of injury. Avoid or modify any exercise that causes you pain or discomfort.
Cross-train with other sports and exercises to reduce the risk of over training. Make sure you have at least one recovery day, preferably two, every week. When to stop exercising immediately Stop exercising and seek medical help if you experience symptoms such as: discomfort or pain chest pain or other pain that could indicate a heart attack, including pain in the neck and jaw, pain travelling down the arm or pain between the shoulder blades extreme breathlessness a very rapid or irregular heartbeat during exercise.
Exercises that could be harmful Some exercises that involve fast or repetitive twisting, or long-lasting or held movements are best avoided because they can cause damage to bones and muscles. When deciding if any exercise is safe, you need to consider the technique and the load, as well as your personal circumstances, such as any previous injuries and your fitness level.
Bouncing while stretching It is mistakenly believed that 'bouncing' as you stretch ballistic stretching helps muscles to stretch further. Sudden overstretching stimulates the stretch reflex causing the muscles to contract even tighter in an attempt to prevent injury. Bouncing is counterproductive as it can cause small tears to the muscle tissue, which are experienced as muscle soreness or tenderness.
Standing toe-touches Avoid standing toe-touches altogether. Bending down to touch the toes, with straight legs, can overstretch the lower back muscles and hamstrings, and stress the vertebrae, discs and muscles of the lower back and hamstrings. Adding a twisting movement to the toe-touch can cause damage to the joints. Alternative stretches for the abdominal muscles or the lower back muscles and hamstrings include: Stretch the hamstrings and lower back muscles by placing one foot on a low bench or chair, with both legs slightly bent so as not to stress the knee joints and, keeping your back straight, gently reach forward with your arms.
An alternative hamstring stretch involves lying on your back with both knees bent. Straighten one leg by lifting it towards the ceiling, keeping the knee slightly bent. Support this leg by clasping both hands behind the knee. Repeat for the other leg. You should feel the stretch on the back thigh of the straight leg. For an alternative lower-back stretch, sit cross-legged on the floor then slowly lean forward, keeping your back straight while reaching your arms out to the floor.
Deep full squat Full squats push the knee joint past 90 degrees. Whether they are done with or without weights a barbell or a weight held across the shoulders or in the hands this can strain the ligaments, cartilage and muscle of the knee joint and lower back, and create problems with the tracking movement of the kneecap. Alternative suggestions include: Perform half-squats instead degree bend of the knee. Use a mirror to check when your knee joint is at 90 degrees.
You could also ask someone else to watch you or seek instruction from a qualified fitness professional. Sit-ups Two common but potentially harmful variations of the sit-up include anchoring the feet where your training partner holds your feet or keeping the legs straight along the floor. The hands are held behind the head or neck, and the upper body lifted.
These types of sit-ups strain the lower back and tend to target the muscles of the hips and thighs rather than the abdomen. Avoid this style of sit-up altogether. Instead, perform abdominal curls. Lie on your back with your knees bent, feet flat on the floor and arms folded across your chest or alongside your body. Breathe out and curl your ribcage towards your pelvis. Double leg raises Avoid double leg raises. This exercise involves lying on your back and raising both legs at the same time.
This places enormous stress on the lower back. Another potentially harmful variation is to lie on your stomach and lift both legs at the same time. An alternative is to perform the exercise one leg at a time, making sure your hips remain stable throughout the movement.
Keep the other leg bent, with your foot on the ground. Stretching and exercise safety Stretching, warming up and cooling down were previously thought to aid injury prevention during exercise. However, there is not a lot of evidence that these activities are effective in reducing exercise injury risk. Careful stretching can be included as part of your overall warm-up and cool-down routine.
Some people also find psychological benefits in stretching and warming up to put them in the right frame of mind for exercise or to help them relax after exercise. Warming up and exercise safety As the name suggests, your warm-up five to 10 minutes should gradually warm your muscles and body temperature.
The type of activity done in the warm-up should include the major muscle groups that will be used in your sporting activity. Your warm-up could begin with a low intensity activity such as brisk walking or jogging. Stretching should be performed once the muscles have been warmed, as the stretching of cold muscles is less effective.
It is also important to stretch after activity to assist recovery. Cooling down and exercise safety In the last five minutes of exercise, slow down gradually to a light jog or brisk walk, then finish off with five to 10 minutes of stretching emphasise the major muscle groups you have used during your activity.
This helps to reduce muscle soreness and stiffness. Water consumption and exercise safety You can lose around one and a half litres of fluid for every hour of exercise. One of the first symptoms of dehydration is fatigue, which causes a significant drop in sporting performance.
It may also cause you to experience cramps, heat stress and heat stroke. Suggestions include: Avoid starting exercise dehydrated. Drink plenty of fluids for several hours prior to exercise. If you are well hydrated you should be able to pass a good volume of clear urine in the hour before exercise. Drink at least ml 2 cups an hour before exercise. Drink at least ml every 15 minutes during exercise. During exercise take advantage of all breaks in play to have a drink.
After exercise, drink more to ensure you are fully rehydrated. Exercise safety in hot weather Exercising in hot weather puts additional strain on your body. Heat-related illnesses such as heatstroke and sunstroke occur when your body can't keep itself cool. Sweating isn't enough on its own to cool your body. Symptoms of heat-related illness can include: irritability general discomfort weakness headache nausea cramps.
Suggestions to avoid heat-related illnesses include: Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise. Wear lightweight, light-coloured, loose-fitting clothes.
Protect yourself from the sun with clothing such as long-sleeved tops, full-length trousers, a hat and sunglasses or an umbrella. Exercise in the cooler parts of the day — preferably before dawn or after sunset.
Reduce your exercise intensity. Take frequent breaks and drink water or other fluids every 15 to 20 minutes, even if you don't feel thirsty. If you have clear, pale urine, you are probably drinking enough fluids.
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Many athletes, coaches, and support staff are taking an increasingly scientific approach to both designing and monitoring training programs. In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. However, very few of these markers have strong scientific evidence supporting their use, and there is yet to be a single, definitive marker described in the literature. Research has investigated a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Dissociation between external and internal load units may reveal the state of fatigue of an athlete. The monitoring approach taken with athletes may depend on whether the athlete is engaging in individual or team sport activity; however, the importance of individualization of load monitoring cannot be over emphasized.
Metrics details. Despite many benefits of the physical activity on physical and mental health of patients with Multiple Sclerosis MS , the activity level in these patients is still very limited, and they continue to suffer from impairment in functioning ability. These databases were thoroughly searched, and the relevant ones were selected based on some plausible keywords to the aim of this study. Due to heterogeneity in studies, the random effects model was used to estimate standardized mean difference. From the systematic review, a meta-analysis was performed on 31 articles which were fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The sample including of subjects was selected from the intervention group, and almost the same sample size of individuals were selected in the control group. Based on the results derived from this meta-analysis, the standardized mean difference between the intervention group before and after the intervention was respectively estimated to be
This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Aerobics injuries are usually caused by trauma and overuse, but can be prevented by using the right techniques and equipment. When returning to a flood-affected area, remember that wild animals, including rats, mice, snakes or spiders, may be trapped in your home, shed or garden.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on physical activity, technical and decision-making performance during small-sided games. Nine sub-elite soccer players were enrolled in the study. The players performed two small-sided games on two occasions within a crossover experimental design.
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Горячий воздух снизу задувал под юбку. Ступеньки оказались очень скользкими, влажными из-за конденсации пара. Она присела на решетчатой площадке.
Он отличался громким голосом и безвкусно-крикливой манерой одеваться. Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли. Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей. Как и все криптографы АНБ, Хейл зарабатывал огромные деньги, однако вовсе не стремился держать этот факт при .
Это очень большие деньги. - Конечно. Договорились. Девушка покачала головой. - Как бы я хотела сказать .
А потом мы могли бы… - Выкинь это из головы. - Сколько в тебе снобизма. - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.
Сирена продолжала завывать. - Но я же ни в чем не виноват. - Ты лжешь. У меня есть доказательство! - Сьюзан встала и подошла к терминалам.
Даже перепачканная сажей и промокшая, Сьюзан Флетчер производила более сильное впечатление, чем он мог предположить. - А коммандер? - спросил .
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Fatigue is an important concern for all athletes, sportspeople and coaches, and in clinical exercise science. There remains considerable debate.