File Name: temporary hardness and permanent hardness of water .zip
School Chemistry Notes: Explaining hard and soft water. The difference between hard water and soft water is explained and the causes and treatment of hard water fully explained. Extra Aqueous Chemistry Index:.
The most basic difference between hard and soft water is that hard water reacts with soap to form solid soap scum, and soft water does not form soap scum. The formation of soap scum on your skin is the reason that soap seems easier to rinse from your body when you shower with hard water. Hardness in water is caused by the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions, or both. As their concentrations increase, water becomes harder. The combined concentration of calcium and magnesium is frequently referred to as total hardness.
Many industrial and domestic water users are concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in boilers and industrial equipment. Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. Water is an excellent solvent and readily dissolves minerals it comes in contact with. As water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Temporary hardness is caused by dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate, Ca HCO 3 2. Rainwater is naturally acidic because it contains dissolved carbon dioxide from the air.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content in contrast with " soft water ". Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone , chalk or gypsum  which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates , bicarbonates and sulfates. Iron oxides or iron carbonates can give a reddish brown colouration to hard water deposits. Hard drinking water may have moderate health benefits. It can pose critical problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers , cooling towers , and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of foam formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Natural rainwater, snow and other forms of precipitation typically have low concentrations of multivalent cations such as Calcium and Magnesium.
Depending upon its behaviour towards soap solution w. For ex: Rain water ,distilled water ,demineralised water. For ex : sea water ,river water, spring water ,lake water and well water. Causes of hardness of water. Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonate ,chloride and sulphate of calcium and magnesium in it. Hard water does not produce lather with soap readily. Soap is sodium or potassium salt of certain higher fatty acids such as steric acid, palmitic acid ,oleic acid.
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В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж.
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The most basic difference between hard and soft water is that hard water reacts with soap to form solid soap scum, and soft water does not form soap scum.Itshigo1 18.05.2021 at 12:00
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