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Some Pros And Cons Of Six Sigma An Academic Perspective Pdf

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Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective

The semiconductor industry consists of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices, which form the foundation of modern electronics. The industry began in the s and currently accounts for about 0. The silicon wafer manufacturing involves several stages. The semiconductor industry consists of three key sectors: silicon ingot growing, the silicon wafer manufacturing and the fabrication of integrated circuit IC chips.

The silicon ingot growing process is contingent on many factors, such as size, specifications and quality, and so the ingot growing time can range from a week to a month. The next stage is the wafer production, whereby a fully-grown silicon ingot is sliced into wafers of different thicknesses.

This sliced wafer is then subjected to the flattening process, and then undergoes the fabrication process producing IC chips.

The focus of this research project is on the silicon wafer manufacturing. The silicon wafer manufacturing consists of four key value-adding processes: slicing, lapping, chemical etching and polishing. The primary aim of the slicing process is to define the crystal structure of the wafer, finding the best possible shape. The wafer is subjected to high-pressure cutting, to achieve correct wafer thickness, but on the downside, it causes high surface damage and contamination.

The second stage is lapping, which removes the surface damage caused by slicing. It is also critical in defining the flatness of the wafer as a failure to achieve the optimum wafer flatness can lead to complete wafer rejection. Wafers are then exposed to abrasive chemicals during the chemical etching stage that helps to remove impurities from the wafer surface. Finally, wafers that have been manufactured to the required flatness standards, with no surface damage, are polished on one side to give a smooth, mirror-like finish, on which IC chips can be fabricated.

This process flow is further illustrated in Tab. The lapping process helps to achieve the maximum wafer flatness. This project aimed to reduce the number of TTV rejects in the lapping process. They found several definitions ranging from waste elimination, conformity to customer requirements, policy compliance, consistency in output, getting it right the first time and customer satisfaction. Quality as excellence is believed to be immeasurable, and control can only be exerted through the investment of maximum efforts and best skill sets.

This approach has been criticised of being of little practical value to an organisation Garvin, Quality as a value definition focuses on external effectiveness meaning costs and internal efficiency.

A more quantifiable and objective definition of quality is conformance to specifications; which was dominant in the 20th century. Such conformance measures have been argued to increase the internal efficiency of the process and sale prices over time Topalovic, However, customer requirements are variable and subjective, which makes them difficult to satisfy.

These intricacies associated with the concept of quality, highlight the need to have a management system that ensures the manufacturing of good-quality products resulting in monetary profits and customer satisfaction. This leads to the concept of quality management. The revolution in quality management began in Japan during the s and gradually gained momentum in the rest of the world during the s and the s Foley, One of the most influential quality movements during this era was the total quality management TQM , which again owes its origin and conceptual developments to Japan Cole, ; Esaki, ; Juran, TQM eliminated the weaknesses of previous quality improvement techniques, which makes it an efficient quality management tool.

TQM is an integrated approach that stresses the top-down approach, staff engagement in the process, evidence-based decision-making and the consideration of customer requirements Tobin, Despite its influential and successful reputation, many publications have documented unsuccessful implementation stories of the TQM concept in the manufacturing industry e. This is partly due to the ever-changing and evolving definitions of TQM, which can mean different things to different people, making its implementation insufficiently consistent and reliable Andersson et al.

Two other branches of quality management were introduced during the s: reliability engineering and zero defects. The reliability engineering technique has roots in the disciplines of pure probability and statistics. It was mostly used in the USA and aimed to apply principles of probability to reduce defect rates of durable products Dimitri, The zero defects strategy, which originated in the USA during the s, was considered to be the most optimistic approach in the quality management field as it aimed to achieve the complete elimination of defects and process failures Crosby, Both concepts, however, received criticism for being impractical and expensive Crosby, It can, thus, be argued that the different quality management concepts differ in their origin, aim, definitions, methodology and focus, thereby confusing rather than informing the readers.

Furthermore, each of the techniques cited above has limitations that reduce their applicability and anticipated benefits Kedar et al. Many organisations have reported difficulties in the implementation of quality management programmes Brown et al.

None of the quality management tools discussed so far had global success, and quality managers were still in search of a complete quality management programme when Six Sigma arrived.

Six Sigma is a systematic set of guidelines that aims to significantly improve the quality of a manufacturing process and reduce costs by minimising process variation and reducing defects.

It utilises statistical tools that can either be applied to facilitate a new product development or strategic process improvement Breyfogle et al. Six Sigma is the edge that helps win the market competition as it provides financial, business and personal benefits; financial — by optimal and efficient use of resources; business — through ensuring maximum customer satisfaction; and personal — enhancing skills of an individual and, thereby, increasing their employability.

In the last decade or so, there has been a rapid uptake of the Six Sigma technique as a process change, management and improvement strategy by global industries.

Besides, in the last decade or so, there has been a massive uptake and implementation of the Six Sigma technique as a process change, management and improvement strategy by global industries, which include the manufacturing process Al-Aomar, ; Gangidi, ; Valles et al. A summary is presented Tab. The origins of Six Sigma can be found in statistics.

The term Six Sigma owes its origin to the terminology employed in the statistical modelling of manufacturing processes. A Six Sigma process is the one that produces 3. Citation: Engineering Management in Production and Services 11, 2; Each manufacturing process has set specification limits for a process and product quality. If six standard deviations can be managed between the statistical mean of a process and its nearest specification limits, then all aspects of that process would meet the specification criteria.

This distance between the process mean and the specification limit is measured in sigma units and is known as the process capability. The process capability measurement index is the process performance index Ppk. Once a process has been brought under statistical control through the implementation of a Six Sigma project, Ppk estimates how stable these improvements would be in the longterm and how closely they would meet customer expectations.

The larger the Ppk value, the less is the process variability and the higher the long-term stability. To satisfy customers, the Ppk value should be greater than 1. The literature indicated that even if a process achieved a high sigma level over short-term, its performance could have declined over long-term; and a common research finding is that it might fall from Six Sigma to the 4.

Such shifting can further lead the process mean to move away from the target, thus reducing the number of standard deviations that can fit between the process mean and the closest specification limit. This is commonly known as a 1. So, the standardised definition of the Six Sigma quality considers this shift and guarantees that a six-sigma process will produce no more than 3. Some previous attempts to resolve the problem of high TTV failed.

The problem of obtaining high TTV rejects had been a recurrent issue at the current organisation, for a significantly long time. OFAT is an experimental technique that evaluates the impact of potential factors on the process outcome, one at a time while keeping other factors constant.

However, these attempts failed to identify the root cause of the current problem. FED evaluates the effect of more than one factor together with their interactions, simultaneously on the process outcome. At a broader level, the Six Sigma methodology was applied for improving the output quality of the lapping process. Six Sigma emphasises the need to identify and clearly define customer requirements and internal industrial factors for setting goals.

The data-driven rigour component of the Six Sigma approach delineates objective decision-making purely guided by the statistical analysis of data to determine process strengths and weaknesses. It is crucial to this approach that a solution is not offered until the problem has been clearly and completely defined Ishikawa, ; Kume, , ; Hoerl, ; Sreedharan et al.

The Six Sigma methodology was applied to resolve the issue of high TTV rejects in the wafer lapping process, of the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The problem of the current project was formulated as follows: the mandatory replacement of slurry in the lapping process results in poor wafer flatness causing TTV rejects to increase from 0. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of Six Sigma aiming to improve the quality output of the lapping process in the silicon wafer manufacturing industry.

It was, thus, considered necessary to apply the statistically validated, well-known, effective strategy of Six Sigma to address this problem. A team of the appropriately qualified technical staff was delegated to undertake this task, under the leadership of a trained Six Sigma black belt specialist, the first author of this article. Stage 1 — Define: the key aim of this phase was to mutually agree on a clear and concise problem statement, gain a fuller understanding of the process and identify the manageable focus area.

To clearly define and communicate the issue at hand, the following problem statement was developed based on IS-IS Not Analysis: the mandatory replacement of slurry in the lapping process is resulting in poor wafer flatness causing TTV rejects to increase from 0.

Process mapping: all the essential components and steps of lapping were outlined in detail, such as material flow, operational activities, resources and material required; and the desired standards of the outcome were established. The aim is to provide all the team members with the understanding of the internal requirements of the process to allow for effective and quicker reviews in the case of any errors.

As lapping supplies two different products to polishing, there were two different CTQs for the same customer requirement VOC. These CTQs were used throughout the project to assess improvements made to the lapping process. It is a tool to facilitate brainstorming, identifying the causes for an effect under six broad categories of Measurements, Material, Man, Environment, Methods and Machines. In the current project, poor flatness or TTV reject CTQs was the effect and a potential factor responsible for poor flatness.

The initial project scoping identified over one hundred of potential causes for TTV rejects. It would have been excessively time consuming to analyse all these factors. Key input variables to be investigated are highlighted in blue and green. It should be noted that Six Sigma is an iterative process, and it must continue running until the desired results are achieved. So, in this case, if the chosen experimental variables did not result in any improvement, remaining inputs were selected for the next iterative cycle.

MSA — the measurement systems analysis — was conducted on all the measurement devices used for data collection, which aimed to identify sources of variations, induced due to the measurement process. It included checks on measurement devices, personnel engaged in the data collection process, their skill sets, adequacy and accuracy of specifications, raw material and the measurement procedure.

Results from both studies suggested that all measurement tools were fit for purpose. The process capability for both types of materials was calculated using Minitab Software, which is shown in Fig. As shown in Tab. Stage 3 — Analyse: during this phase, the collected data was analysed through a systematic application of statistical and graphical tools. Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts, were used to identify key trends and generate clues.

Although there are different kinds of control charts, in the current study, Xbar-S and I-MR charts were used together with boxplots. The further investigation into out-of-control lots gave more clues, from which a number of Multi-Vari charts were generated but only two charts displayed a significant trend Fig.

An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost

This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define—measure—analyze—improve—control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz.

Anyway, as a small definition, Six Sigma methodology is a way of tackling problems by focusing on data to eliminate as many defects as possible. It is also a set of tools that help organizations reduce the probability of error. This methodology is commonly related to General Electric GE , but it was actually developed by Motorola. GE was the one to set the precedent of this methodology and soon many manufacturing companies followed seeing amazing results and a few others saw that this methodology was just not for them. Following these set of ideas, we are going to take a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages the Six Sigma methodology application has for organizations. The first and most important advantage is that Six Sigma focus completely on the customer.

Six Sigma refers to a data-driven approach used by companies to upgrade their business processes. The method uses a five-step methodology to eliminate defects at all stages within a company. Six Sigma defines defects as anything that is not within customer expectations. The goal is to apply a measurement-based approach that focuses on identifying and improving defects. Six Sigma has a proven track record of adding value and ensuring quality to the output of a business in the form of incremental improvements to a product or a service. It may also be used to optimize supply chain processes and increase customer satisfaction.


Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective - Author: Jiju Antony.


Advantages & Disadvantages of Six Sigma

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Douglas C. G H Patel College of Engg. Jamison V.

The advantages and disadvantages of Six Sigma Methodology

Advantages & Disadvantages of Six Sigma

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Antony, J. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Report bugs here.

This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define—measure—analyze—improve—control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz.

Introduction

The semiconductor industry consists of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices, which form the foundation of modern electronics. The industry began in the s and currently accounts for about 0. The silicon wafer manufacturing involves several stages. The semiconductor industry consists of three key sectors: silicon ingot growing, the silicon wafer manufacturing and the fabrication of integrated circuit IC chips. The silicon ingot growing process is contingent on many factors, such as size, specifications and quality, and so the ingot growing time can range from a week to a month. The next stage is the wafer production, whereby a fully-grown silicon ingot is sliced into wafers of different thicknesses. This sliced wafer is then subjected to the flattening process, and then undergoes the fabrication process producing IC chips.

Optimize patient access to mealtime assistance, decrease missed meal incidence, risk of malnutrition, reduce food waste and staff rework. Clinical and non-clinical staff including catering, nursing, speech and language therapy, dietetics and nutrition; patients, relatives. Pre and post outcomes measures were taken for the number and cost of uneaten meals, rework for staff, staff and patient satisfaction, patient outcomes. Following a 1-month pilot of a co-designed process for ensuring access to assistance at mealtimes, average wasted meals due to staff not being available to assist patients requiring mealtime assistance went from 3 per day to 0 corresponding to an average reduction of 0. Patients receiving assistance did not require additional oral therapeutic nutritional supplements, evidenced no new incidences of aspiration pneumonia or swallowing difficulties and were discharged without requirement for ongoing Dietetics and Nutrition support. The co-designed new process highlights the importance of staff and patient collaboration, inclusion and participation in designing quality improvement projects. Malnutrition is an independent risk factor for complications, increased mortality, lengthened hospital admissions and healthcare costs [ 1 ].

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Six sigma is a powerful business strategy that employs a disciplined approach to tackle process variability using the application of statistical and non-statistical tools and techniques in a rigorous manner. This paper examines the pros and cons of six sigma in a detailed manner.

Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective. The TQM Magazine. Key ingredients for the effective implementation of six sigma program.

Он не мог пока ее отпустить - время еще не пришло. И размышлял о том, что должен ей сказать, чтобы убедить остаться. Сьюзан кинулась мимо Стратмора к задней стене и принялась отчаянно нажимать на клавиши. - Пожалуйста, - взмолилась. Но дверца не открылась.

 Немного? - Глаза Бринкерхоффа сузились.  - У Стратмора стол ломится от заказов. Вряд ли он позволил бы ТРАНСТЕКСТУ простаивать целый уик-энд. - Хорошо, хорошо.  - Мидж вздохнула.

В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано. Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся .

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Goio R. 15.05.2021 at 14:51

PDF | Six sigma is a powerful business strategy that employs a disciplined approach to tackle process variability using the application of.

Laban D. 18.05.2021 at 11:42

Article information: To cite this document: Jiju Antony, (),"Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective", The TQM Magazine, Vol. 16 Iss 4 pp.

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