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Classes Of Antiretroviral Drugs And Their Examples Pdf

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Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct.

Antiretroviral drugs: Critical issues and recent advances

There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. HAART decreases the patient's total burden of HIV, maintains function of the immune system , and prevents opportunistic infections that often lead to death. Treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS is increasingly rare. Anthony Fauci , head of the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , has written, "With collective and resolute action now and a steadfast commitment for years to come, an AIDS-free generation is indeed within reach.

The class of each drug appears after the name of the drug. There are currently 6 major classes of antiretroviral drugs: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI , nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI , protease inhibitor PI , fusion inhibitor, chemokine coreceptor antagonist consisting of 2 subclasses: CCR5 antagonist and CXCR4 antagonist , and integrase inhibitor. Nucleoside analogues bear a structural resemblance to the natural building blocks of DNA: the nucleosides adenosine and guanosine, thymidine and cytidine. Nucleoside analogues are triphosphorylated within the cell, and some undergo further modifications didanosine, for example, is converted into its active moiety, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate. Nucleotide analogues resemble monophosphorylated nucleosides, and therefore require only 2 additional phosphorylations to become active inhibitors of DNA synthesis.

Your Guide to HIV Treatment

Understanding prescribing trends for hepatitis C treatment in Ontario. A third drug from a different class is added to these two to create an effective combination that attacks HIV at different points. Integrase inhibitors , another class of antiretroviral drugs, have several advantages: When taken as part of combination therapy they quickly suppress the amount of HIV in the blood. They generally cause relatively few side effects and are less likely to interact with other medicines. Protease inhibitor PI —based combinations tend to involve more pills than other combinations and may have to be taken with food.

Antiretroviral therapy (anti-HIV drugs)

The main treatment for HIV is a class of drugs called antiretrovirals. This keeps the immune system strong enough to fight off disease. Today, more than 40 antiretroviral drugs are approved to treat HIV.

Some individuals may have trouble tolerating ARV treatment due to side effects, or they may not work effectively for that individual, requiring them to change to a second- or third-line treatment regimen. If individuals do not take the medication as directed for example, taking it occasionally or intermittently , it can increase the likelihood of resistance, where the HIV strain adapts to the treatment and make ARV medications ineffective. These AIDS-defining conditions are a range of infections, cancers and illnesses that can occur due to advanced stages of HIV infection. Antiretroviral medications are a group of drugs that inhibit different steps in the HIV replication process. In this way, they can suppress HIV infection but never entirely eliminate it from the body.

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Each class of drug attacks HIV in a different way. Generally, drugs from two or sometimes three classes are combined to ensure a powerful attack on HIV. It includes the following drugs:. NNRTIs interfere with the reverse transcriptase enzyme by binding directly to it, blocking the reverse transcription process. Integrase inhibitors target a protein in HIV called integrase which is essential for viral replication. Generic drugs contain the same active ingredients as branded drugs, and have comparable strength, safety, efficacy and quality. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell or inside a cell that selectively receives and binds to a specific substance.

 В чем дело? - рявкнул он и замолчал, внимательно слушая собеседника. Сьюзан на какое-то время забыла про Хейла. Она молила Бога, чтобы Стратмору звонил Дэвид. Скажи мне скорей, что с ним все в порядке, - думала.  - Скажи, что он нашел кольцо. Но коммандер поймал ее взгляд и нахмурился. Значит, это не Дэвид.

Почему вы не дождались полицейских.

Они также подошли к Танкадо. - Неудачный выбор места, - прокомментировал Смит.  - Халохот думал, что поблизости никого. Халохот какое-то время наблюдал за происходящим, потом скрылся за деревьями, по-видимому, выжидая.

Серые глаза светились уверенностью, с которой сочеталась профессиональная скрытность, но сегодня в них проглядывали беспокойство и нерешительность. - У вас испуганный вид, - сказала Сьюзан. - Настали не лучшие времена, - вздохнул Стратмор. Не сомневаюсь, - подумала. Сьюзан никогда еще не видела шефа столь подавленным.

Колеса неистово вращались на рыхлой земле. Маломощный двигатель отчаянно выл, стараясь одолеть подъем. Беккер выжал из него все, что мог, и отчаянно боялся, что мотоцикл заглохнет в любую минуту.

Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись. Спидометр показывал 60 миль в час. До поворота еще минуты две. Он знал, что этого времени у него. Сзади его нагоняло такси.

Management of HIV/AIDS

Какой идиот станет делать на кольце надпись из произвольных букв. Фонтейн свирепым взглядом заставил его замолчать.


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HIV drugs cannot cure HIV , but they can help you stay healthy by preventing the virus from reproducing making copies of itself.