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Common Diseases And Their Symptoms Pdf

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What Are Airborne Diseases?

These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Examples of pathogens include:. They can spread in several different ways, including through:.

In this article, we explain the different types of infections, how to reduce the risk of infection, and what symptoms they cause. Stay informed with live updates on the current COVID outbreak and visit our coronavirus hub for more advice on prevention and treatment.

The immune system is an effective barrier against infectious agents. At this stage, an infection becomes harmful. Some pathogens have little effect at all. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from the body. This variation means that some infections are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening.

Some pathogens are resistant to treatment. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are different types of pathogens. They vary in several ways, including:. For example, viruses are smaller than bacteria.

They enter a host and take over cells, whereas bacteria can survive without a host. Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion. Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5, types to date.

Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid fat molecules protects them. Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells. Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Some of them change the function of the cell.

Viruses may remain dormant for a period before multiplying again. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates. Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. These drugs will not stop the virus, and their use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance. Most treatment aims to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without assistance from medication. Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. A nonillion is a 1 followed by 30 zeros. Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.

There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly. A doctor can treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. However, some strains become resistant and can survive the treatment. A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme.

However, some types, such as yeasts, are single celled. Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body. There are approximately 5. Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body.

These are also known as systemic infections. The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms.

These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body. Examples of fungal infections are:. A prion is a protein that contains no genetic material and is usually harmless. Scientists do not class prions as living microorganisms. However, if a prion folds into an abnormal shape, it can become a rogue agent and cause infection. Prions can affect the structure of the brain or other parts of the nervous system.

They do not replicate or feed on the host. Prions cause degenerative brain diseases, all of which are rare but progress rapidly and are currently fatal. While the forms of infection that we have listed above are the main types, there are others that can have an effect on the body. A single celled organism with a nucleus can cause a protozoan infection. Protozoa commonly show features similar to those of animals, such as mobility, and they can survive outside the human body.

They most commonly transfer to other humans through feces. Amebic dysentery is an example of a protozoan infection. Helminths are larger, multicellular organisms that tend to be visible to the naked eye when fully grown. This type of parasite includes flatworms and roundworms. These can also cause infection. Finally, ectoparasites — including mites, ticks, lice, and fleas — can cause infection by attaching or burrowing into the skin.

Ectoparasites can also include blood-sucking arthropods, such as mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood. The cause of an infection is whichever type of organism has entered the body. A specific virus, for example, will be the cause of a viral infection.

A wound fills with pus , for example, when white blood cells rush to the site of an injury to combat foreign bacteria. The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible, as well as the site of the infection. Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the genitals or upper respiratory tract. The rabies virus, for example, targets the nervous system. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts. Others target a wider range of cells, leading to several symptoms.

A flu virus can cause a runny nose, muscle aches, and an upset stomach. A person with a bacterial infection will often experience redness, heat, swelling, fever, and pain at the site of infection, as well as swollen lymph glands.

A rash can indicate a fungal infection of the skin. However, viruses and bacteria may also cause skin conditions and rashes. Common symptoms of prion diseases include rapid onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive difficulties.

They can also trigger the buildup of plaque in the brain, causing this organ to waste away. There is no single method for preventing all infectious diseases. However, people should take the following steps to reduce the risk of transmission:.

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Learn more here. What to know about infections. Medically reviewed by Cameron White, M. Share on Pinterest The common cold is a type of viral infection. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will work best for you.

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What to know about infections

Foodborne illness is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes or pathogens can contaminate foods, so there are many different types of foodborne illnesses. Most foodborne diseases are infections caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other diseases are poisonings caused by harmful toxins or chemicals that have contaminated food. Of note many foodborne pathogens also can be acquired through recreational or drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread. Please report your suspected foodborne illness to the Minnesota Department of Health.

Report the common viral diseases spread by airborne Identify typical signs and symptoms of viral diseases Use of vaccine is controversial because of its.

Waterborne diseases

These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Examples of pathogens include:. They can spread in several different ways, including through:.

Everything you need to know about communicable diseases

Common Illnesses

Disease , any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be understood in order to recognize the hallmarks of disease.

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by insects or other animals. And you may get others by consuming contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

common). Signs & symptoms generally same for all forms: Headache; fever most during 1st week of symptoms. There is no long term chronic infection.

Causes and Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Also, visit our coronavirus hub for more information on how to prepare, advice on prevention and treatment, and expert recommendations. Airborne disease can spread when people with certain infections cough, sneeze, or talk, spewing nasal and throat secretions into the air. Some viruses or bacteria take flight and hang in the air or land on other people or surfaces. When you breathe in airborne pathogenic organisms, they take up residence inside you. You can also pick up germs when you touch a surface that harbors them, and then touch your own eyes, nose, or mouth. Keep reading to learn more about the common types of airborne diseases and what you can do to protect yourself from catching them.

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. These diseases can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems.

Learn about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. Around three out of four childhood leukaemia cases are acute lymphoblastic. Learn more about acute myeloid leukaemia, an overproduction of myeloid white blood cells. Information about acute myeloid leukaemia, a type of blood cancer that can affect young people.

A communicable disease is a disease that spreads from one person or animal to another. Pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause these diseases. A communicable disease is any disease that passes between people or animals.

What Are Airborne Diseases?

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Danny L. 08.05.2021 at 13:38

Also, visit our coronavirus hub for more information on how to prepare, advice on prevention and treatment, and expert recommendations.

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nurses and midwives regarding infections and infectious diseases and their prevention a broad overview of microbiology aspects and common terminology used; free of signs and symptoms of infection on admission and have then gone.