File Name: improvement of microbial strains and fermentation processes .zip
In this article we will discuss about the improvement of microbial strains for better production of products. A mutant requiring oleic acid for neomycin formation by Streptomyces fradiae showed a decrease in the intracellular level of neomycin precursors in the mutant. Plasmid genes are involved in antibiotic production in Streptomyces spp. Although, plasmids are involved in genetic characteristics on curing experiments.
Involvement of plasmids in biosynthesis of aureothricin and kasugamycin in Str. The genetic study using Str. Protoplast fusion is one of the useful techniques for obtaining hybrids or recombinants of different microorganism strains. Various studies have been carried out by using protoplast fusion in Streptomyces, Saccharomyces, and fungi. Protoplast formation in Sterptomyces was first reported by Okanishi and his team in the year Further, they have worked on formation stabilization and regeneration of protoplast of Str.
Fusion of yeast protoplasts has been reported with Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Technique for protoplast fusion in Brevibacterium flavum, has been used for strain improvement.
Screening after major subjection of a parent strain to physical or chemical mutagen greatly increased the probability of finding improved strain. It involves the selection of mutants with a pronounced change in a biochemical character of practical interest. They are isolated routinely from population surviving after prolonged exposure to a mutagen, for example, selection of non-pigmented Penicillium chrysogenum strains with high penicillin production.
The initial strain of Sterptomyces griseus a streptomycin producing organism synthesized the small amount of streptomycin but its variant was isolated which produced greater amount of streptomycin. For further improvement it is also necessary to study the biosynthetic pathways which contribute to the identification of precursors as in case of a modified tetracycline synthesized by a mutant strain of Str.
The molecule got changed at the C-5 position and was almost devoid of antibiotic activity. Another mutant strain S synthesized 6-dimethyl tetracycline, a new antibiotic, not elaborated by the parent strains, proved to have several advantages. Today it is one of leading commercial forms of tetracycline. It plays a dominant role in strains improvement.
By definition such mutation affects only the amount of product synthesized. Such variants are usually phenotypically similar to the parent, with rapid and abundant mycelial and conidial development. This technique fetched importance in improving P. For example, Wisconsin series were the famous Q culture with significantly improved antibiotic titres, and strains BL3-D10, which does not produce the characteristic and trouble some chrysogenin pigment.
All further mutant selections over the next decade were derived from Q Strains selected as obvious variants after exposure to mutagen are usually inferior in their capacity for accumulation of antibiotic. Improvements are extremely few and their selection and evaluation is extremely important. Mutagen dose is important. Mutants sought for major mutation rates are best isolated from populations surviving prolonged doses of mutagen, whereas variants for increased productivity are generally isolated from population surviving intermediates dose level.
Strains with enhanced altered morphology, etc. Step wise selection implies small increment in productivity, and the probability of getting hyper producing strains decreases. Though, strains may prove better in their productivity at laboratory scale, there is no guarantee that enhanced productivity will occur in production fermenters. The long term pilot plant studies are often necessary before any enhanced strains potential can be realized in actual production.
Localized mutagenesis affecting the small selected regions of the chromosomes, offers a promising new approach. Mutation programmes can be directed to maximize mutations in any marked area on the chromosome, specially the areas known to affect the formation of end products.
Isolation of strains in unknown loci linked to the revertant site can be done by a heterokaryon method or by the use of temperature sensitive mutants. Two strains of opposite mating types A or B are required to initiate the sexual cycle and allow to mate by mixing the conidia of mating type A with mycelia on appropriate media.
After a period of nuclear division and migration, fusion between A and B nuclei takes place. Each fused nucleus diploid undergoes meiosis to form four haploids, which divide mitotically into eight nuclei contained in ascus.
Few of the industrially important fungi form heterokaryon in which rare diploid nuclei result from the fusion of two haploid nuclei. This process is called Parasexuality. Although, recombination in fewer fragments in the parasexual cycle compared to the meiotic process it can occur by mitotic crossing over or by other mechanism.
The importance of mitotic crossing over or recombination is that it makes possible genetic analysis and controlled breeding in organisms with no sexual cycle. Stram improvement through parasexual cycle has been reported in P. Top Menu BiologyDiscussion. Lactic Acid: Discovery, Fermentation and Uses. Industrial Uses of Citric Acids Microbiology. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.
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Abstract. Improvement of microbial strains for the over-production of industrial products has been the hallmark of all commercial fermentation processes.
Improvement of microbial strains for the over-production of industrial products has been the hallmark of all commercial fermentation processes. Conventionally, strain improvement has been achieved through mutation, selection, or genetic recombination. Over-production of primary or secondary metabolites is a complex process, and successful development of improved strains requires a knowledge of physiology, pathway regulation and control, and the design of creative screening procedures. In addition, it requires mastery of the fermentation process for each new strain, as well as sound engineering know-how for media-optimization and the fine-tuning of process conditions. This review focuses on the various options that may be employed to improve microbial strains and addresses the complex problems of screening, the tools and technology behind the selection of targeted organisms, and the importance of process optimization.
Metrics details. The food industry is constantly striving to develop new products to fulfil the ever changing demands of consumers and the strict requirements of regulatory agencies. For foods based on microbial fermentation, this pushes the boundaries of microbial performance and requires the constant development of new starter cultures with novel properties. Since the use of ingredients in the food industry is tightly regulated and under close scrutiny by consumers, the use of recombinant DNA technology to improve microbial performance is currently not an option. As a result, the focus for improving strains for microbial fermentation is on classical strain improvement methods.
In this article we will discuss about the improvement of microbial strains for better production of products. A mutant requiring oleic acid for neomycin formation by Streptomyces fradiae showed a decrease in the intracellular level of neomycin precursors in the mutant. Plasmid genes are involved in antibiotic production in Streptomyces spp. Although, plasmids are involved in genetic characteristics on curing experiments. Involvement of plasmids in biosynthesis of aureothricin and kasugamycin in Str. The genetic study using Str. Protoplast fusion is one of the useful techniques for obtaining hybrids or recombinants of different microorganism strains.
BTR microbiologists and molecular biologists have worked with a large spectrum of microorganisms. We have successfully applied two general approaches to strain development:. Classical strain development programs typically focus on increasing the yield of an enzyme, an antibiotic or other products through mutagenesis and screening. Agar-based specific screening methods are often successfully used to identify improved mutants generated by mutagenesis using ultraviolet irradiation or chemical mutagens. Improved strains are confirmed in a shake flask screen, and then subjected to further rounds of mutagenesis. The outcome of classical strain development can be maximized by coupling with fermentation process development. Bio-Technical Resources molecular biologists are highly skilled in applying advanced recombinant methodologies to strain development.
Overview DOI: Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it possible for engineering improved microbial. Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it possible for engineering improved microbial strains by specific addition or deletion of certain genes. The key to the genetic engineering approach, however, is the identification of genes controlling metabolite production. In recent years, innovative technologies have been developed to allow researchers to investigate the genetics and physiology of a microorganism on a global scale. Knowledge gained from these studies is beginning to modernize strain development processes.
Он толкнул дверь. Комната оказалась пуста. Пуст был и вращающийся стул Мидж. Звуки шли сверху. Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова. Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета. Вцепившись руками в спинку стула, Бринкерхофф в ужасе смотрел на экраны.
- Это сделаешь. ГЛАВА 48 - Что? - воскликнула Мидж, не веря своим ушам. - Стратмор говорит, что у нас неверные данные. Бринкерхофф кивнул и положил трубку. - Стратмор отрицает, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над каким-то файлом восемнадцать часов.
Заинтригованный, он позвонил одному из своих партнеров по теннису, бывшему политологу, перешедшему на службу в Библиотеку конгресса. Слова приятеля его очень удивили.
Сьюзан с трудом воспринимала происходящее. - Что же тогда случилось? - спросил Фонтейн. - Я думал, это вирус. Джабба глубоко вздохнул и понизил голос.
Гиральду. Беккер кивнул. Он, конечно, видел старинную мавританскую башню, но взбираться на нее не .
Фонтейн поднял голову и произнес с ледяным спокойствием: - Вот мое решение. Мы не отключаемся. Мы будем ждать. Джабба открыл рот.
Ему захотелось увидеть ее глаза, он надеялся найти в них избавление. Но в них была только смерть. Смерть ее веры в .
Комнату освещали лишь странные оранжевые блики. В воздухе пахло жженой пластмассой. Вообще говоря, это была не комната, а рушащееся убежище: шторы горели, плексигласовые стены плавились. И тогда она вспомнила. Дэвид.
Вот она показалась опять, с нелепо скрюченными конечностями. В девяноста футах внизу, распростертый на острых лопастях главного генератора, лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Тело его обгорело и почернело.
Я думал, вы из городского… хотите заставить меня… - Он замолчал и как-то странно посмотрел на Беккера. - Если не по поводу колонки, то зачем вы пришли. Хороший вопрос, подумал Беккер, рисуя в воображении горы Смоки-Маунтинс. - Просто неформальная дипломатическая любезность, - солгал .
Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба.