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Wood Identification And Use Pdf

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WOOD 280 : Wood Anatomy and Identification

The University of Tennessee PB Introduction hand lens 10x can be used to distinguish the different cell types and their arrangements. By This publication provides information on how using the proper techniques, you can become to identify wood of several species common to efficient and accurate at wood identification.

Tennessee by using a hand-magnifying lens. In- cluded in this publication are a wood identification key for some common Tennessee species, a list of Wood Surfaces key specie characteristics and a list of companies Most of the wood cell structure characteristics that sell wood identification sample sets. Wood and the wood produced from each of these has surfaces are classified into three categories, or unique structure, physical and mechanical proper- geometric planes of reference, that indicate the ties.

The differences in wood structure and proper- type of surface uncovered after a cut has been ties allow for the manufacture of wood-based made. The three reference planes are the cross products with many different appearances and section, radial section and tangential section. Since wood is a popular and useful material, Figure 1 depicts the three reference planes of it is important that enthusiasts and professionals be wood.

The cross section is produced by cutting the able to distinguish the wood of one species from cells perpendicular to the direction of growth in the another. For example, how would a barrel manu- tree. Wood of a particular species can be identi- Planes of Reference fied by its unique features. These features include strength, density, hardness, odor, texture and Cross-Section Surface color.

Reliable wood identification usually re- quires the ability to recognize basic differences in cellular structure and wood anatomy. Each species has unique cellular structure that creates differ- ences in wood properties and ultimately deter- Annual Growth Ring mines the suitability for a particular use. Cellular Increment annual ring characteristics provide a blueprint for accurate wood identification.

Wood is composed of many small cells and its structure is determined by the type, size, shape and Radial Surface Tangential arrangement of these cells. The structure and Surface characteristics of wood can vary between species and within the same species.

With practice, a small Figure 1. Three-dimensional orientation of wood material. It is important to tion. The development of the wood material inside determine which reference plane you are viewing a growth ring is caused by the changes that occur when identifying wood, because cell structure is during the growing season. Earlywood, or three-dimensional and varies based on orientation.

Earlywood cells have large diameters and Characteristics thin cell walls. Latewood, or summerwood, is By cutting a tree and exposing the cross formed in late summer and fall toward the end of section, you can observe the bark, phloem bark- the growing season when dryer conditions slow the producing layer , cambium a thin layer inside the development of new wood growth.

Latewood bark where cell division takes place and xylem occurs at the outer region of a growth ring, and is sapwood and heartwood Figure 2. The heart- characterized by cells with greatly thickened cell wood is the darker-colored material that is formed walls and narrow diameters.

Although heartwood is formed in the tree center, it may not occur uni- Preparing the formly across the surface of the section. The heartwood contains extractives, which are the Wood Surface chemical components that give cedar its pleasant To view the cellular characteristics of wood, aroma, redwood its decay resistance and walnut its it is very useful to have a power 10x hand dark color. The sapwood surrounds the heartwood lens to magnify the section you are looking at.

The size and width of the Preparation of the wood surface is important and sapwood will vary greatly between species. For can affect your ability to locate and identify example, the sapwood of locust is a very narrow specific cell types.

The cross section is the best outer band and the sapwood of black cherry is very section to begin your observation of the cell wide. The color and odor of heartwood can also be structure in wood. To prepare a cross section for useful in identifying certain species like redcedar, viewing, make a thin, clean cut with a razor blade sassafras and black walnut. Make the cut across the surface at a Another feature that can be observed when slight angle.

It is important not to take off too viewing the cross section is the growth rings. A much material or to cut too deeply. You are better growth ring represents one year of wood forma- to make several thin slicing cuts to enlarge the viewing area rather than trying to make one large cut.

Using a dull blade or cutting too deeply will Woody Stem Nomenclature create a poor surface and mask otherwise useful identifying features.

Only a small area with a few growth rings is needed for adequate observation and identification. Identifying wood is a process of elimination. The best strategy is to search for particular features that will help you to categorize the species or group of species withe those features, and thus eliminate others that do not.

The use of an identifi- cation key can be helpful for this separation. A wood identification key is provided for the species discussed in this publication. Primary layers of wood tissue through the step is to determine whether a specimen is soft- diameter of a tree. The terms softwood and. Hardwood with a hand lens trees have broad leaves and are deciduous — they lose their leaves at the end of the growing season.

A razor blade is best. Deep cuts will resort in torn have needles or scale-like foliage and are not fibers in the wood section and possible injury to deciduous. Softwoods are gymnosperms, meaning your hands and fingers! Examples of softwoods include needed. Longitudinal tracheids function in water conduc- tion and support.

The limited number of cell types makes softwoods more difficult to differentiate extremely large and numerous. Other species, such from one another. By tween species. The majority of hardwood volume using a hand lens, you can determine if vessel is composed of fiber cells that offer structural elements are present or not, thus separating hard- support to the stem.

The major difference between woods from softwoods. Figure 3 illustrates the hardwoods and softwoods is the presence of vessel three dimensional differences between hardwood elements, or pores, that exist in hardwoods only. The main function of vessel elements is water After determining whether a wood sample is a conduction. Vessel elements can vary greatly in hardwood or softwood — based on the presence or size, number and spacing from one species to absence of vessel elements — we can begin to look another, and from earlywood to latewood.

Some more closely at other cell types for further assis- species, like oak, have vessel elements that are tance with identification. Hardwood Softwood earlywood thick-walled thin-walled tracheids tracheids latewood vessel latewood earlywood. The last is to observe and categorize how the change, or group of species has vessels pores that are transition, in pore size occurs from earlywood to uniform in size across the entire growth ring latewood within a growth ring.

There are three yellow poplar, gum and maple. Within each growth ring, a band of large section. Different species have unique vessel earlywood vessels pores is clearly visible to the arrangements. Figure 5 shows some of the more naked eye, after which a band of latewood vessels common vessel arrangements.

Solitary pores Figure 5a : single pores that do not touch any other pores — evenly spaced 2 Semi-ring-porous hardwoods Figure 4b. For across cross section maples. The pores in the earlywood zone have a large. Classification of pore transition from earlywood to latewood.

Solitary pores Pore multiples Pore chains Nested pores Wavy bands ulmiform clusters. In Pore chains Figure 5b : arrangement where many species — maple, sycamore and beech pore multiples appear in radial direction only. Tyloses Wavy bands Figure 5d : Pores are arranged Tyloses are inclusions that form inside the in irregular concentric bands. Also called ulmiform vessels of some hardwoods. Because tyloses are because this characteristic is distinctive of all elms unique to certain hardwood species, they are useful also hackberry.

Tyloses are outgrowths of parenchyma cells into the hollow lumens of vessels Wood Rays and they look like bubbles or cellophane-like Once the pore distribution and arrangement structures clogging the openings of the vessel have been identified, it is important to look at the elements. Tyloses may be absent or sparse, as in size and arrangement of wood rays. Wood rays are red oak; variable, in the case of chestnut and ash; seen as narrow stripes or lines that extend across or densely packed and abundant, as they appear in the growth rings in the radial direction — from the white oak and locust.

Tyloses effectively clog the bark to the center of the tree. Wood rays function vessels and subsequently restrict moisture move- to transport food and water horizontally across the ment.

The presence of tyloses is the reason white diameter of a tree. The size and distribution of rays on the cross section are quite unique for many species and Parenchyma groups of species. Species such as red and white Parenchyma are small, thin-walled, longitudi- oak have very wide rays many cells wide that are nal cells that provide food storage. These cells are easily seen without a hand lens.

Species such as sparse in softwoods but are often quite significant yellow-poplar, ash and maple have numerous and in hardwoods. Parenchyma are often very small extremely narrow rays just cells wide. The and difficult to see. However, there are many distribution of rays can also be used to separate species with visible and unique arrangements of some species.

For example, beech and sycamore parenchyma cells that offer a clear structural both have large, conspicuous rays with fine, feature for decisive identification. Another useful There are two basic types of parenchyma: characteristic of rays that can be observed on the paratracheal and apotracheal. The major differ- cross section of some species is the presence of ence between them is that paratracheal parenchyma nodes, or a swelling of the ray, at the intersection make contact with the pores or vessel elements, of a new growth ring — where the earlywood zone while apotracheal parenchyma are separated from begins.

Ray nodes are seen in yellow-poplar, beech pores by fibers or rays. Figure 6 shows the various and sycamore. When viewing a piece of wood from either In most species, apotracheal parenchyma are the radial or tangential surface, wood rays can be a not be useful in identifying wood with just a hand key characteristic to help identify the species.

Rays lens. One exception is yellow-poplar, which has a vary not only in width, but also in height. The fine, clear, bright line of marginal apotracheal height of a ray is best observed from the tangential parenchyma at the edge of every growth ring.

Télécharger Wood: Identification & Use PDF eBook

Tree Identification Tools. Hang them on trees to be identified or use them in the classroom. They are helpful resources when leaves, fruit, or seeds are not present or are too high on a tree to be examined. American Forests' Tree Doctor Confused but curious about pruning? Baffled by bugs? Stumped by a tree ID? American Forests' Tree Doctor is in and online.


Wood Identification.pdf

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The University of Tennessee PB Introduction hand lens 10x can be used to distinguish the different cell types and their arrangements. By This publication provides information on how using the proper techniques, you can become to identify wood of several species common to efficient and accurate at wood identification. Tennessee by using a hand-magnifying lens. In- cluded in this publication are a wood identification key for some common Tennessee species, a list of Wood Surfaces key specie characteristics and a list of companies Most of the wood cell structure characteristics that sell wood identification sample sets.

Full-size, hardcover edition describes over timber species in detail. This indispensable guide features handsome color photographs of each species and reliable data on working properties, seasoning requirements, typical uses The remaining pages are a comprehensive list of woods found in woodworking from around the world, organised by their biological names. With more than colour images, this is the most comprehensive guide ever written on Australian rainforest woods, both for the amateur and the professional wood enthusiast. See more ideas about Wood, Types of wood, Exotic woods.

Wood Identification.pdf

Wood Identification.pdf

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Ruffinatto , Flavio, Crivellaro , Alan.

For further information, visit www. For structural purposes movement is not usually significant, but if you require stability in varying humidities e. These classifications are not directly related to the shrinkage of green timber. Refers to resistance to fungal decay of the heartwood only. Sapwood in most species is generally not durable and should not be used in exposed conditions without preservative treatment. Classes referred to in BS EN are:. Refers to how easily timbers can be penetrated with vacuum pressure preservative treatments.

This title features colour photographs of each species, and reliable data on working properties, seasoning requirements and typical uses. Aimed squarely at the individual or small-scale user, whether professional or amateur, it includes woods used in cabinetmaking, joinery, carpentry, turning and carving. In this indispensable guide to one of the worlds most valuable natural resources there are handsome colour photographs of each species, and reliable data on working properties, seasoning requirements, typical uses and safety considerations. Inspirational examples of finished work are also shown.

Atlas of Macroscopic Wood Identification

Timber genus identification based on the anatomical features of wood is well established in botany. However, species-level wood identification is not always possible based on traditional wood morphology techniques alone. To compensate for the deficiencies of traditional methods, direct analysis in real time coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry DART-FTICR-MS was used to obtain the mass spectral fingerprints of different timber species. Using heartwood samples of two morphologically similar species, Pterocarpus santalinus and Pterocarpus tinctorius , subjected to different treatments, i.

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